Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. Also, Psychology is the study of conscious and unconscious events such as feelings and thoughts. It is a vastly interdisciplinary academic field that connects natural and social sciences. However, Psychologists are curious about the emergent features of brains, which connect them to neuroscience. Psychologists study the behavior of individuals and communities as a social science. In fact, A psychologist is a professional practitioner or researcher who works in the field. Social scientists, behavioral scientists, and cognitive scientists are all terms used to describe psychologists. Also , Some psychologists try to figure out what role mental functions play in personal and social conduct. Others look into the physiological and molecular mechanisms that underpin cognitive functioning and behaviors.

Basically, Perception, cognition, attention, emotion, intelligence, subjective experiences, motivation, brain functioning, and personality are all studied by psychologists. Also, Interpersonal interactions, psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas of social psychology are of interest to psychologists. They also take into account the unconscious mind. In addition, Research psychologists employ empirical methodologies to identify causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial factors. In fact, Clinical and counseling psychologists use symbolic interpretation in some cases, but not all.

Table of Contents

While psychological knowledge is routinely used to assess and treat mental health illnesses, it is also used to understand and solve problems in a wide range of human endeavors. Also, According to numerous sources, psychology’s ultimate goal is to improve society. Not to mention, Other psychologists perform scientific research on a variety of mental processes and behavior-related areas.  Others study human development, aging, sports, health, forensics, and the media, among other things.

What is psychology?

Basically, The word “psychology” gets its second half from the Greek word -o -logia, which means “study” or “research.” The Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Maruli first used the Latin word psychologia in his book Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae (Psychology, on the Nature of the Human Soul) in the late 15th or early 16th century. As a matter of fact, Steven Blankaart used the term psychology for the first time in 1694 in his book The Physical Dictionary. According to the dictionary, “Anatomy, which deals with the body, and Psychology, which deals with the soul.”

In 1890, William James defined psychology as “the science of mental life, both its manifestations and conditions.” For decades, this definition was widely accepted. However, extreme behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who claimed in 1913 that the subject is a “natural science” whose theoretical objective is “the prediction and control of behavior,” disputed this interpretation. Since James’ definition, the term “psychology” has become increasingly strongly associated with scientific experimentation. In addition, Folk psychology refers to ordinary people’s knowledge of people’s mental states and behaviors, as opposed to psychology specialists’ understanding.

Psychologists & Psychiatrist

Psychologists and psychiatrists collaborate to aid persons suffering from mental illnesses, but they are not the same. Actually, Psychotherapy is how a psychologist helps patient ease symptoms by changing their behavior. Also, The psychiatrist’s function as a medical doctor is mainly focused on administering medicine and other measures to treat mental illnesses. Because the mind is so complex, mental illnesses can be difficult to treat. Not to mention, Thought processes, emotions, memories, dreams, perceptions, and so on, unlike a skin rash or a heart defect, cannot be seen physically. While certain mental health disorders have physical manifestations, such as the plaques that develop with Alzheimer’s disease, many psychological theories are based on the observation of human behavior. Generally, A practicing psychologist will meet with patients, do evaluations to determine their concerns and the root of any problems, and then propose or give treatment, such as counseling and psychotherapy.

History of Psychology

Ancient civilizations such as Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia all studied psychology philosophically. As a matter of fact, Sadness and mental problems were detailed in Ancient Egypt’s Ebers Papyrus. Greek thinkers such as Thales, Plato, and Aristotle (particularly in his De Anima treatise) addressed the workings of the mind, according to historians.

Hippocrates, a Greek physician who lived in the 4th century BC, proposed that mental diseases were caused by physical rather than supernatural reasons. Also, Plato proposed that mental activities took place in the brain in 387 BCE, but Aristotle proposed that it takes place in the heart in 335 BCE. However, Psychological understanding in China arose from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, and later from Buddhist ideas. Insights gained via introspection and observation, as well as skills for concentrated thought and acting, make up this body of knowledge. Also, It describes the universe in terms of a division between physical and mental reality, as well as the interaction between the two.

The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine, an ancient classic, describes the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes yin–yang balancing theories of personality, and analyses mental disease in terms of physiological and social disequilibrium. With the contributions of Western-educated Fang Yizhi (1611–1671), Liu Zhi (1660–1730), and Wang Qingren (1768–1831), Chinese brain scholarship advanced under the Qing Dynasty. Wang Qingren stressed the brain’s role as the nervous system’s core, linked mental illness to brain disorders, looked into the causes of dreams and sleeplessness, and proposed a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function.

Indian Philosophy

Indian philosophy, influenced by Hinduism, looked into the many levels of awareness. The separation between a person’s ephemeral mundane self and their eternal, unchanging soul was a major theme of the Upanishads and other Vedic texts that formed the foundations of Hinduism. As a matter of fact, Divergent Hindu philosophies and Buddhism have questioned this hierarchy of selves, but all have highlighted the significance of gaining greater levels of awareness.

During Helena Blavatsky’s sojourn in British India, she gathered inspiration for Theosophy, a religion founded by Russian-American scholar Helena Blavatsky. Also, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716), a German mathematician, extended his calculus ideas to the mind, claiming that mental activity occurred in an undivided continuum. Basically, He claimed that the distinction between conscious and unconscious awareness is just one of degree. In 1732, Christian Wolff published Psychologia Empirica, and in 1734, Psychologia Rationalism, which established psychology as a separate science. Immanuel Kant popularised the concept of anthropology as a subject, with psychology as a subset.

Prussian officials closed the Old University of Münster after the conclusion of Napoleon’s reign. However, in 1825, the Prussian state introduced psychology as an obligatory science in its rapidly expanding and extremely important educational system, after consulting philosophers Hegel and Herbart. This discipline, on the other hand, has not yet embraced experimentation. Not to mention, Early psychology in England focused on phrenology and the treatment of societal issues such as alcoholism, violence, and the country’s overcrowded “lunatic” asylums.

Experimental Psychology

In the 1830s, Gustav Fechner began performing psychophysics research in Leipzig. Also, He established the notion that the strength of a stimulus affects human perception logarithmically.  In fact, The Weber–Fechner law was named after this principle. Kant’s negative view of undertaking quantitative research on the mind was addressed in Fechner’s 1860 Elements of Psychophysics. In addition, Fechner demonstrated that “mental processes could not only be assigned numerical magnitudes but could also be measured using experimental procedures.”  A parallel study on sensory perception was performed in Heidelberg by Hermann von Helmholtz, who also trained physiologist Wilhelm Wundt. In fact, Wundt, in turn, went to Leipzig University and founded the psychological laboratory that gave the world experimental psychology.

Actually, Wundt was inspired by recent advancements in chemistry and its successful exploration of the elements and structure of materials to break down mental processes into their most fundamental components. Soon after, Paul Flechsig and Emil Kraepelin established another renowned laboratory in Leipzig, this one focused on experimental psychiatry.

Another 19th-century addition to the topic was German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, a researcher at the University of Berlin. He established quantitative models of learning and forgetting and pioneered the experimental study of memory. The Gestaltists claimed that the whole of experience is important and differs from the sum of its components, rather than reducing thoughts and behavior into smaller component aspects, as did structuralism.

Funding and Consolidation

La Société de Psychologie Physiologique in France, which existed from 1885 to 1893, was one of the first psychology societies. The International Congress of Psychology, sponsored by the International Union of Psychological Science, held its first meeting in Paris in August 1889, during the World’s Fair commemorating the French Revolution’s centenary. Also, Among the 400 people in attendance, William James was one of three Americans. In 1892, the American Psychological Association (APA) was created. In fact, The International Congress was held in various sites around Europe, with a large international turnout. Presentations in Russian, Chinese, and Japanese, as well as Esperanto, were given at the Sixth Congress in Geneva in 1909.

The Seventh Congress convened in Oxford after a hiatus for World War I, also with significantly more participation from the war-victorious Anglo-Americans. As a matter of fact, Tokyo Imperial University was the first in the East to introduce modern psychology. New psychological ideas spread from Japan to China. Actually , With the United States’ participation in World War I, American psychology gained prominence. Following that, the Rockefeller family began to sponsor behavioral research through the Social Science Research Council.

The Rockefeller foundations helped start sexuality research in the United States through the Bureau of Social Hygiene and later financing of Alfred Kinsey. In addition, The eugenics movement influenced American psychology through the Carnegie-funded Eugenics Record Office, the Draper-funded Pioneer Fund, and other institutions. Eugenics became a popular topic in psychology classes in the 1910s and 1920s. In contrast to the United States, the scientific and medical establishments in the United Kingdom were hostile to psychology, and also there were only six psychology chairs in universities in England until 1939.

Types of Psychology

Introduction

Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and the mind. Basically, Various categories of psychology include cognitive, forensic, social, and developmental psychology. A psychologist can assess and treat a person suffering from a mental illness. In fact, As a therapeutic alternative, a psychologist may suggest behavioral changes. A psychiatrist is a doctor who specializes in treating mental diseases.

Generally, there are various varieties of psychology, each with its own set of goals. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to categorizing them, but here are some prevalent types.

Clinical Psychology

Clinical psychology is the study of how people think. Also, it is a branch of psychology that combines science, theory, and practice to better understand, anticipate, and treat issues like adjustment, handicap, and discomfort. Not to mention, It encourages personal growth, adaptation, and adjustment. Generally, A clinical psychologist studies the cognitive, emotional, biological, psychological, social, and behavioral elements of human performance across the course of a person’s life, regardless of culture or socioeconomic status. Basically, Clinical psychology can help with the understanding, prevention, and treatment of psychologically induced distress or dysfunction, as well as the promotion of an individual’s well-being and personal growth. In addition, Clinical psychology is primarily concerned with psychological assessment and psychotherapy, though clinical psychologists also work in research, training, forensic testimony, and other areas.

Cognitive Psychology

Internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, learning, and language are studied in cognitive psychology. It also examines people’s thinking, perceptions, communication, memory, and learning. In fact, Some of the practical applications include how to improve memory, increase decision-making precision, and set up educational programs to improve learning.

In the 1960s, cognitive psychology emerged as a break from behaviorism, which argued that unobservable brain processes were outside the realm of empirical science from the 1920s to the 1950s. Actually, This breakthrough occurred when scholars in linguistics, cybernetics, and applied psychology employed mental processing models to describe human behavior. In fact, Much of cognitive psychology’s work has been merged into other schools of psychology as well as modern sciences like cognitive science, linguistics, and economics.

Development Psychology

Developmental psychologists study how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors change over time. Basically, Physical development, cognitive development, and social-emotional development are the three key dimensions examined in this field. Similarly, Motor skills, executive functions, moral understanding, language acquisition, social transformation, personality, emotional development, self-concept, and identity formation are all covered by these three aspects.

Evolutionary Psychology

Evolutionary psychology studies how psychological changes in human behavior, for instance, language, have influenced human behavior across time. Likewise, Many human psychological qualities, according to one evolutionary psychologist, are adaptive in the sense that they have helped us live for thousands of years.

They also believe that universal behaviours or qualities, such as the ability to infer others’ emotions, distinguish kin from non-kin, find and choose healthier mates, and cooperate with others, are good candidates for evolutionary adaptations. In addition human social behavior has been studied in terms of infanticide, intelligence, marital patterns, promiscuity, attractiveness perception, bride price, and parental investment. As a matter of fact, Evolutionary psychology’s theories and conclusions have applications in a wide range of sectors, including economics, the environment, health, law, management, psychiatry, politics, and literature.

Forensic Psychology

Forensic psychology is the application of psychology to criminal investigations and the law. Likewise, A forensic psychologist uses psychology as a science in the criminal justice system and civil courts. It also entails assessing the psychological factors that might influence a case or behaviour and then presenting the findings in court.

In forensic psychology, the broad definition is “the application of clinical specialties to legal institutions and people who come into contact with the law,” while the narrower definition is “the application of clinical specialties to legal institutions and people who come into contact with the law.” While the American Psychological Association recognized forensic psychology as a specialty under a narrower definition in 2001, the Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists were revised in 2013 to include all subfields of psychology (e.g., social, clinical, experimental, counseling, and neuropsychology) that apply “scientific, technical, or specialized knowledge.”

Health Psychology

Health psychology is also known as behavioral medicine or medical psychology. Basically It investigates how behavior, biology, and social context influence illness and health. Also, A physician will frequently look first at the biological causes of a disease, whereas a health psychologist will look at the whole person and how their health state is influenced. This could include things like their socioeconomic position, education, and background, as well as habits that could affect the sickness, such as following instructions and taking medication. In clinical settings, health psychologists generally collaborate with other medical specialists.

It’s all about figuring out how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors influence physical health and disease. Not to mention , Psychological variables can have a direct impact on one’s health. Likewise, Chronically occurring environmental stresses that influence the hypothalamic-pituitary–adrenal axis, for example, can be harmful to one’s health in the long run. Similarly, Certain practices, such as smoking or consuming large amounts of alcohol, can either harm or benefit one’s health over time (engaging in exercise).   In other words, health psychologists see health as the result of psychological (e.g., thoughts and beliefs), behavioral (e.g., habits), and social processes as well as biological processes (e.g., a virus, tumor, etc). (e.g., socioeconomic status and ethnicity).

Neuropsychology

Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain in relation to behavior and psychological processes. Also, It may be involved if a disorder involves brain lesions and tests that involve monitoring electrical activity in the brain. Generally, A neuropsychological test is performed following suspected or diagnosed brain damage, such as a stroke, to determine whether a person is likely to have behavioral issues. Thus, The findings may allow a doctor to prescribe treatment to help the individual reverse any cognitive damage that has occurred.

It is a clinical and experimental branch of psychology that aims to understand how brain function influences behavior and cognition, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of behavioural and cognitive impacts of neurological illnesses. Basically, Neuropsychology tries to understand how the brain links with the mind through the study of neurological patients, whereas classical neurology concentrates on nervous system dysfunction and classical psychology is generally separated from it. As a result, it has a lot in common with neuropsychiatry and behavioral neurology in general in terms of concepts and concerns.

Occupational Psychology

Occupational or organizational psychologists examine and make recommendations regarding people’s performance at work and in training. They assist businesses in finding more efficient ways to operate and in comprehending how individuals and groups behave at work. This data can aid in increasing productivity, efficiency, work happiness, and staff retention.

By boosting job happiness, motivation, and performance, occupational psychologists contribute to the success of a company or any organization. Occupational safety and health, as well as workers’ overall health and well-being, are all covered by this branch of psychology. Occupational safety and health are concerned with the safety, health, and well-being of workers. It also covers the safety and well-being of anybody who works there, including employees, suppliers, and customers. Occupational psychologists study the actions and attitudes of workers. They also use training programs, management systems, and hiring methods to enhance attitudes and behaviors.

Social Psychology

To study how social forces influence human behavior, social psychology employs scientific approaches. Basically, It aims to explain how the actual, imagined or suggested the presence of other people affects one’s feelings, behavior, and thinking. Similarly, Group behavior, social perception, nonverbal behavior, compliance, violence, prejudice, and leadership are all examined by a social psychologist. Also, Grasp social conduct requires an understanding of social perception and social interaction. Not to mention, Military, consumer, educational, cross-cultural, and environmental psychology are some of the other disciplines of psychology. In fact, The number of branches is increasing.

Meanwhile, Social psychologists investigate the conditions under which ideas, feelings, and behaviors occur, as well as how these variables influence social interactions, to explain human behavior as a result of the link between mental state and social situation.

To some extent, social psychology has bridged the gap between psychology and sociology, although there is still a split between the two sciences. However, sociological approaches to psychology continue to be a valuable complement to traditional psychological research. Aside from the distinction between psychology and sociology, there is a distinction in emphasis between American and European social psychologists, with the former typically focusing on the individual and the latter on group-level phenomena.

Scope Of Psychology In India

Psychology is a discipline of study that looks at various aspects of human behavior and mental processes. Also, It makes use of scientific methods to study human perception, learning, emotions, and reactions to various situations. Basically, Psychology is an interdisciplinary field since it intersects with a variety of different fields such as social sciences, biological sciences, and artificial intelligence. As a matter of fact, Psychology as a profession, of course, has a wide range of applications. Clinical psychology, industrial psychology, and organizational behavior, as well as school psychology, forensic psychology, sports psychology, rehabilitation, cognitive neuroscience, and other fields, all offer a promising future for psychologists. Furthermore, all of these disciplines present a bright future for psychology students in terms of teaching and research.

Why study Psychology?

  1. Psychology as an interdisciplinary science: Psychology is a shining star discipline that intersects with nearly every other field. As a result, psychological principles are applied in a variety of ways, resulting in a plethora of transdisciplinary domains in development.
  2. Psychology provides for both quantitative and qualitative ways to study behavior: Quantified measurements as well as qualitative procedures including subjective judgments can be used to research human behavior. As a result, students from many backgrounds can pursue a career in psychology.
  3. Increasing mental health concerns: Due to the increasing complexities of our lifestyle, broad public knowledge of mental health has quadrupled in the previous two decades. People in today’s environment recognize and appreciate the significance of human behavior in all parts of life. Every organization, without a doubt, requires the services of a psychologist!
  4. High-paying jobs: In most firms, a consulting psychologist with experience in a specialized area is in high demand. These jobs are usually well-paid and well-respected.

Scope & Job opportunities in the field of psychology

  • Work as a Licensed Clinical Psychologist at government and private hospitals, NGOs, private clinics, and as a freelancer in clinical psychology, rehabilitation, and counseling psychology.
  • Industrial Psychology & Organizational Behavior: Work as an I/O Psychologist, Organizational Consultant, and Recruitment and Selection.
  • Work as a consultant at police departments, crime departments, the Defense/Army, legal firms, and the Investigation Bureau, among other places.
  • School Psychologist: Work at public and private schools, universities, mental health centers, community-based treatment centers, residential clinics and hospitals, juvenile justice programs, and private clinics as a School Psychologist.
  • Work as a Sports Psychologist with school/college/university sports teams, professional sports teams, Sports Rehabilitation Specialists, Sports Research Specialists, and Consultants in the field of sports psychology.
  • Professional Test Developer and Psychometrician for Government and Private Organizations, as well as a Consultant and Researcher in the field of psychometry.

Eligibility criteria for Psychology in India

Eligibility for UG Psychology courses is based on the following criteria:

  • Candidates must have completed class 12th or equivalent education from an Indian state or national school board.
  • Admission to Psychology programs is open to students from all academic disciplines, including Arts, Science, and Commerce.
  • Candidates who have finished their qualifying education in class 12th from any open school board, such as NIOS, are also eligible.

Candidates who have finished a bachelor’s degree in psychology as a major are eligible to enrol in this program.

  • Psychology should be considered as the main subject in final year papers/subjects for the purposes of determining aggregate marks.
  • Candidates who are in the final year of their bachelor’s degree program are also eligible.
  • Candidates who earned their bachelor’s degree in psychology through remote education or through the Open University are ineligible.

Psychology Entrance Exams In India

Pursuing a career in psychology is a hard and very responsible task. Therefore, It is very necessary that only certain candidates are admitted for the courses that are related to psychology because being a psychologist and counseling someone about issues is a very serious business. Thus to filter out the candidates certain entrance exams are very necessary. Given below is a list and description of certain entrance exams for psychology courses.

SAAT (Siksha O Anusandhan Admission Test)

The Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan Admission Test, or SAAT, is an admission exam held by the Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University to enroll students in the university’s various programs (7 UGs and 7 PGs).  For BSc programs, SOA will provide a seat at its own college.

  • Criteria for Eligibility
  • Candidates must have received at least 50% aggregate marks in any stream or background in 10+2 or equivalent from a recognized board.
  • Similarly, Students who have completed their class 12 examinations are also eligible to apply.

Exam’s Procedure

  • Visit the SOA’s official website to fill out the application form, upload documents such as pictures and signatures, and download the application form for future reference.
  • Once the admit card is available, you can download it.
  • Attend the exam on the scheduled exam date at the designated test center.
  • Await the announcement of the findings.
  • Students will be invited for counseling after the results are announced, based on the merit list established by SOA based on their exam scores.
  • Students will be assigned seats based on their merit.

GSAT

The GITAM Institute of Science, which is part of GITAM University, administers a national-level exam called the GSAT. The exam is held to admit students to GITAM University’s undergraduate and postgraduate programs, with seats available at the university’s three campuses in Visakhapatnam, Hyderabad, and Bengaluru.GITAM will provide a seat at one of its Bengaluru, Visakhapatnam, or Hyderabad campuses.

Criteria for Eligibility

Candidates must have completed 10+2 or equivalent from a recognized board in any subject with a minimum of 50% aggregate.

Exam’s Procedure

  • Candidates must apply for the exam either online using the college’s official website or by mailing a letter to the college.
  • Make a registration payment after that.
  • The candidate should next print the admit card and look for the test center on it.
  • Following that, candidates must present for the exam at the designated location and wait for the results.
  • After the results are announced, the candidate must attend counseling and, if chosen, will be assigned a seat.

BHU UET

(Banaras Hindu University Undergraduate and Postgraduate Entrance Examinations) Banaras Hindu University runs BHU UET examinations to admit candidates to their undergraduate and postgraduate programs.  The exam is available in two different formats: computer-based and pen-and-paper.

Criteria for Eligibility

  • The candidate must have received at least 50% of the marks in class 12 from a recognized board.
  • Candidates need not be older than 22 years old.

Exam’s Procedure

  • The admissions procedure is straightforward. To be considered, candidates must complete an application and upload photographs and signatures to their website.
  • If there are any registration fees, pay them.
  • Students should use this admit card to attend the examination at the designated location.
  • Following that, students are counseled and selected for the program at Banaras Hindu University.

MET

Manipal Entrance Test (MET) is a university-level entrance exam administered by Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) to enroll students in a variety of programs such as BA, BSc, MBBS, BE, MSc BPT, and others. The test is given once a year, and about 30,000 students participate.

Criteria for Eligibility

  • The candidate must have received at least 50% of the marks in class 12 from a recognized board.
  • Students who will take the 12th grade in the same year will be in the same class.

Exams Process

  • Register for the exam by going to Manipal’s official website and filling out the application form, as well as uploading signatures, photographs, and other documents.
  • Make payment after that (if any).
  • Once the admission card is accessible on the official website, you can download it.
  • Attend the exam at the designated location and wait for the results.
  • Following the announcement of the results, candidates should attend counseling. You will be assigned a seat if you are chosen during the counseling process.

Top Psychology Courses for bachelors in India

The science of the mind and human behavior is known as psychology. Basically, Psychology courses are available at several levels in India, including diplomas, certificates, bachelor’s degrees, and postgraduate studies in psychology. In addition, there are numerous research-level courses as well as part-time or online Psychology courses.

While psychology is a large subject in and of itself, every other course that requires students to learn about human anatomy and related areas includes basic psychology principles in its curriculum. Counseling, physiotherapy therapeutic, and other medical courses frequently include psychology as a subject.

Bachelor of Science in psychology

A bachelor’s degree in psychology takes three years to complete. Also, The BSc Psychology program is three years long and consists of six semesters. Likewise, Subjects in BSc Psychology give in-depth analysis to comprehend attitudes, emotions, conflict resolutions, motivation, pressure management, and human behavior grouped by functions such as Cerebral processes and brain features.Not to mention, Psychology as a course is progressively gaining popularity in India. There are currently 669 psychology colleges in India, offering a total of 870 courses in psychology.

This is a three-year undergraduate science course offered by the University Grants Commission. As a matter of fact, Psychology’s major goal is to comprehend human behavior and collect all available data on the human brain and emotions.In fact, The purpose of the psychology course is to qualify and train individuals in the field of cognitive science. This course covers motivations, human reactions, and stress management in depth. Overall, case studies and observation learning, assists graduates in analyzing people’s thoughts, acts, feelings, and reasons. As a result, they will be able to come up with appropriate solutions. As a result of the pandemic downturn, the career opportunities for graduates have greatly expanded. They are also permitted to serve as therapists and psychologists in child guidance centers, hospitals, and industry-related organizations.

Scope of Bsc in psychology

Both in India and abroad, there is a wide range of jobs available after completing a B.Sc Psychology degree. Also, Students who complete this course have the option of getting a career or continuing their education in psychological science. In India, the average pay range for B.Sc Psychology graduates is around INR 4.10 LPA. Generally, The compensation scale varies depending on a variety of characteristics, including experience, client management, employment sector, job categorization, and more. Moreover , Graduates of the B.Sc Psychology program can also pursue an entrepreneurial option if they want to create their own counseling practice.

List of top Bsc in psychology colleges

College Name Affiliated university Cut off
1)Chandigarh University UGC 89%
2) Jain University UGC 90%
3)Sister Nivedita University UGC 88%
4)St.Xaviers College Autonomous 92%

 

Average Fees: 20,000 to 6.5 Lakhs Rupees

Admission Criteria

The BSc Psychology admissions procedure is based on eligibility criteria and is nearly the same at all of the popular institutions and colleges that offer the course. There will be two admissions processes:

  • Based on merit in the qualifying exams or quotas set by management
  • If an applicant wishes to enroll in a reputable college, he or she must first pass a common entrance examination administered by the university or a national-level agency.

However, a student is expected to achieve high grades. Likewise, The student’s final cut-off scores will be tested, and they will be compared to the university’s current admissions cut-off. Aside from that, students who are admitted under the management quota must pay a capitation fee to complete the admission process.

Types of Jobs after Bsc in psychology

  • Psychologist
  • Human Resources Manager
  • Psychology Instructor
  • Personal Trainer
  • Lecturer
  • Marketing Executive
  • Social Worker

Average Placements after  BSc in Psychology

  • Data Analytics
  • Child Paediatrics
  • Industrial Counselling
  • Customer Analysis
  • Lecturing and Educational Services
  • Research and Development

Bachelor of Arts in Psychology

A bachelor’s degree in psychology is a three-year full-time undergraduate program that focuses on the study of the mind and behavior. It includes aspects such as health, human growth, personality, and social behavior. In addition, The program is structured into six semesters, with theory subjects and practicals covering the first four semesters and internships and projects covering the last semester.

Scope

  • Candidates can pursue higher education in psychology through master, doctoral, or diploma programs given by various colleges in India and abroad.
  • Candidates with a B.A. in psychology have a diverse range of work opportunities.
  • Graduates in psychology can work in hospitals, schools, clinics, and other settings.
  • In the field of psychology, a graduate with a degree in international relations will be given more consideration.
  • A. graduates can also work for the government in a variety of capacities.

Why study BA in Psychology?

  • Firstly, Candidates who pursue a BA in Psychology may have a wide range of professional options.
  • Secondly, Applicants will have a better grasp of human behavior.
  • Thirdly, Candidates can teach psychology in the future because psychological services are constantly in high demand in schools and colleges.
  • Applicants who are interested in tackling practical and theoretical problems should consider this as a career option.
  • Candidates who wish to help people, undertake community service, or work in social services should consider pursuing a bachelor’s degree in psychology.
  • Applicants who pursue a BA in psychology can conduct a variety of studies and learn how to organize and interpret data, which is a valuable ability for their future careers.

List of top BA in Psychology Colleges

College Name Affiliation Cut off
1)Banglore University UGC 75%
2) Nalanda Open University UGC 82%
3)Vinayak Mission University UGC 75%
4)IGNOU UGC 85%

 

Average Fees: 15000-4.5 Lakhs Rupees

Admission Criteria

  • After the results of class 10+2 are released, students are admitted to the three-year BA Psychology program. Admission in this track might be based on merit or on an exam, as determined by the colleges.
  • Generally, To be considered for admission, candidates must meet the colleges’ eligibility requirements. In typically, universities and colleges distribute application forms in the months of May and June.
  • Universities/Colleges announce cut-off lists and merit lists after the last date for submission of the application form, after which the admission process continues.

 

Types of Jobs after BA in Psychology

  • Career counselors
  • Social worker
  • Teacher (in Private or government schools/colleges)
  • Recruiter
  • Advertising agents
  • Sales Representative

Average Placements After BA in Psychology

  • Prisons
  • Industry of Advertising
  • Institutions of Higher Learning
  • Centers for Rehabilitation
  • Organizations that help the poor
  • Guidance Centers for Children and Youth

Top Psychology Courses for Masters in India

Master Of Arts in Psychology

MA Psychology, or Master of Arts in Psychology, is a popular postgraduate level Master’s degree program in the discipline of psychology. The course will take two years to complete. Also, students learn about the numerous divisions of psychology, such as Clinical Psychology, Health Psychology, Industrial Psychology, Social Psychology, Psychometry, Neuropsychology, Study of Emotions and Paradigms, and so on, throughout the course of two years.

Scope

There will be no shortage of job opportunities after obtaining a master’s degree in psychology, as there are numerous careers in the discipline.

Why study MA in Psychology?

  • Humans may know a lot about the outside world, but we are lacking in our comprehension of ourselves. We are drifting away from ourselves as the world becomes more complex. Studying this subject aids in bridging that gap.
  • By 2025, job growth in the department of psychology is predicted to increase by 25%.
  • Basically, This is a field that the contemporary age has established, and it will only continue to grow.
  • Not to mention, After completing an MA in Psychology, students have access to a wide range of research possibilities.

List of Top MA in Psychology Colleges in India

College  Name Affiliated to Cut off
Hindu College University of Delhi 80%
Fergusson College Autonomous 85%
IGNOU UGC 82%
Banaras Hindu University UGC 81%

 

Average Fees – 10,000 to 95000 Rupees

Admission Criteria for MA in Psychology

Admissions to MA Psychology programs are primarily based on merit, but certain colleges, such as Ramkrishna Mission Vidyalaya and Hindu College, hold their own entrance tests. In India, there are two sorts of admissions procedures: merit-based and entrance exams.

On the basis of merit

Candidates for MA Psychology are admitted based on their academic performance in their respective colleges after graduation. The following colleges adhere to this criterion:

  • Fergusson College is located in Pune, India.
  • IGNOU
  • Jaipur’s Banasthali University

Entrance Exam

The results of the University of Delhi’s entrance examination are approved by institutes such as:

  • Daulat Ram College is a college in Daulat, India.
  • Zakir Husain College Indraprastha College for Women

After passing the entrance exam, students must also participate in personal interviews in order to be admitted to this program.

Types of Jobs After MA in Psychology

  • Mental Health Counsellor
  • Psychologist
  • Supervising Counsellor
  • Youth Development Manager
  • Youth Care Specialist
  • Adoption Services Director
  • Alcohol and Drug Counselor

Average Placements After MA in Psychology

  • Hospitals
  • Schools
  • Colleges
  • Businesses (provide counseling facilities to their employees)
  • Centers for Rehabilitation
  • Correctional Institutions
  • Hospitals for the mentally ill

Master of Science in Psychology

The MSc Psychology program is a two-year full-time postgraduate program separated into four semesters. Students in this profession create their own theories and put them to the test through research. A psychologist examines both normal and abnormal behavior and treats people with mental and emotional problems.

Scope

  • Students with an MSc in Psychology degree can work as business consultants or as medical counselors in hospitals.
  • In Fact, Two of the most popular employment paths for psychology graduates are social service and mental health.
  • They can expect to earn a good living and have the opportunity to work directly with patients suffering from mental disease and other ailments as a result of the MSc Psychology scope and high demand for professionals in these disciplines.
  • Because the majority of the greatest jobs in the industry are designated for psychologists with a doctorate in psychology, students should consider pursuing a Ph.D. in Psychology after completing their undergraduate studies.

List of Top Msc in Psychology Colleges in India<?h3>

College Name Affiliated to Cut off
1)Mount Carmel College Bengaluru City University 87%
2)NIMS University UGC 89%
3)Jain University UGC 83%
4)Banaras Hindu University UGC 80%

 

Average Fees – 3000 – 200000 Rupees

Admission Criteria for MSc in Psychology

  • After candidates have completed the registration or application process by uploading documents and paying fees, they are admitted to the program based on their performance in the entrance exam or on a merit basis.
  • Also, Candidates will be asked for a Written Test (Research Aptitude Test – RAT) that will be conducted by the institute authority if they meet the minimum eligibility criteria.
  • Students who have passed the JRF, GATE, and other related exams are also required to take the written exam and Personal Interview.
  • The admission authority will release a list of shortlisted candidates for all courses based on the candidate’s performance in the written examination and interview.

Types of Jobs After Msc In Psychology

  • Psychologist
  • Educational Psychologist
  • Social Psychologist
  • Urban Planning Officer
  • Staff Recruiter

Average Placement after MSc in Psychology

  • Defense Forces
  • Prisons
  • Advertising Industry
  • Vocational Rehabilitation Centres
  • Community Mental Health Centres
  • Mental Health Clinics
  • Hospitals and Physician Offices
  • Private Clinics

PhD In Psychology

Students who are interested to make a career in the academic field or getting into research work, opt to do their Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). Not to mention, Psychology is a large field with many different areas where students can specialize and do research. Also, To pursue a Ph.D. in psychology, one must have completed a postgraduate degree in psychology from a recognized university with a specialization in psychology. There is a lot of research work done, where students study their specialization at an advanced level and are also trained and groomed to utilise what they’ve learned to distribute information.

A Ph.D. in Psychology can lead to positions as a professor at leading universities in India and overseas, as well as trained Psychologists, researchers, and analysts in the area. Generally, While obtaining a Ph.D. in Psychology, you will conduct both basic and practical research. Because mental health issues are being handled seriously, there is an urgent need for specialists in the field of psychology in society. Also, Society requires more counselors, therapists, and psychologists to assist the many people who are in need.

List of Top PhD Colleges in Psychology in India

College Affiliated to Cut Off
1)Christ University UGC 89%
2)IIT Kanpur UGC 90%
3)Kalinga University UGC 85%
4)St Xaviers College Ahemdabad UGC 87%

 

Average Fees For PhD In Psychology – 20000 to 200000 Rupees Per Annum

Admission Criteria for PhD In Psychology

Admission to this program is based on both merit and the results of an admission exam. Many colleges require students to take any eligible entrance exams. Likewise, Some universities provide both direct admission and entrance exam-based admissions. However, in order to get admitted to any of the Ph.D. in Psychology colleges in India, students must meet all of the necessary criteria and prerequisites.

The application process can be completed both in-person and online. However, Students must visit the college campus and fill out an admission form for the offline process. Also, For colleges that require entrance exams, students must complete the examination form and take the test before the deadline. In the online process, students should go to the college’s official website and complete out the college’s requirements.

Average Placements after PhD In Psychology

  • Colleges
  • Universities
  • Healthcare Centers
  • Private Clinics
  • Hospitals
  • Counselling Offices etc.

What to do after PhD in Psychology?

Candidates with a Ph.D. in Psychology might pick from a variety of alternatives after completing the program. In fact, They have the option of pursuing a career in Social Service or Mental Health, which are two of the most common options for psychology graduates. Not to mention,  Professionals in these professions are in high demand, and they may expect to earn a good living while working directly with people suffering from mental illness and other disorders.

 

Most entry-level career roles require a master’s degree in psychology; nevertheless, most of the finest occupations are reserved for psychologists with a doctorate in psychology. Thus, here are some professions that one can opt for after a PhD in Psychology.

  • Psychologist
  • Therapist
  • Counsellor
  • Professor
  • Lecturer
  • Advisor
  • Analyst
  • Researcher
  • Scientist
  • Clinical Psychologist
  • Educational Psychologist
  • Research Psychologist
  • Industrial Psychologist
  • Social Worker

Psychology Job Roles and Levels in India

Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior of humans, and it encompasses all aspects of conscious and unconscious experience, as well as the cognitive process. Also, It is a combination of scientific and social studies that has applications in all aspects of life, including work, family, relationships, sports, and industries also it is a tremendously broad field that offers a wide range of intriguing employment options.

It is impossible to deny that psychology is one of the most significant areas of our day. As a matter of fact, there was a time when psychology was solely theoretical, but after decades of research that included not just trials but also philosophical evaluations and reevaluations, psychology has evolved into a field that is both scientific and intuitive. Psychology, which is expected to increase at a rate of 14% per year, is a field that will always see significant growth because it aids in understanding what causes problems in individuals in the first place, rather than just in solving them.

1) Psychiatrist

A psychiatrist has the essential task of assigning individuals diagnoses (based on their evaluations) and ensuring that they receive the right medications, which necessitates a very specialized educational path.

He/she usually enters the picture after a patient has already gone through several other structures designed to support persons who are suffering from mental health disorders — a psychiatrist enters the picture at the end of the mental health journey.

A psychiatrist is usually trained in certain types of counseling or therapy, such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Thus, If you want to become a certified psychiatrist, it won’t be easy. To finally be able to call yourself a psychiatrist, you must complete an undergraduate degree in medical school and then an MPhil from an RCI-licensed college.

Average Salary

Beginners – 1 L Per Annum

Mid Experienced – 4.8 L Per Annum

Highly Experienced – 10 L Per Annum

2) Industrial Psychologist

Given that a large portion of the workforce is employed in industries where the various individuals have little to no emotional support, it’s no wonder that those psychologists who can fill this function are well compensated for their efforts! And their efforts are frequently directed at a larger scale than just themselves.

Generally, Industrial and organizational psychologists’ job is to ensure that the frameworks in which workers operate may be fine-tuned in such a way that it benefits both the companies and the individuals involved.

Not only striking a balance between the human and structural is difficult, but it also necessitates extreme attentiveness.

Not to mention, A master’s degree in organizational psychology is required to work as an organizational/industrial psychologist, with a doctorate degree being optional.

Keep in mind, however, that attaining a doctorate degree will significantly boost your income potential.

Average Salary

Beginners – 1 L Per Annum

Mid Experienced – 4.8 L Per Annum

Highly Experienced – 10 L Per Annum

3) Neuropsychologist

Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that studies the psychology of the brain in-depth. Basically, A neuropsychologist examines more than simply the standard psychological markers used by other psychologists.

Their expertise lies in a deep grasp of all the many areas of the brain and how they respond to various stimuli, such as which part of the brain isn’t working properly when someone says they’re unhappy, or which part of the brain causes ecstasy when someone feels excited.

Because neuropsychologists are skilled at dealing with intricate brain chemistry, they frequently consult with pharmaceutical companies on a variety of products.

Neuropsychology is a specialist topic that necessitates extensive study, frequently over several years. However, it is a financially lucrative career, not only in terms of enjoyment.

Average Salary

Beginners – 50K Per Annum

Mid Experienced – 5 L Per Annum

Highly Experienced – 6 L Per Annum

4) School Counsellor/ Psychologist

It is impossible to overestimate the value of a school psychologist or counselor. Also, A school psychologist can help students, staff, and management knit together the social fabric of the school, which is nearly always bursting at the seams with social tensions and strife.

In such a situation, a school counselor provides relief for everyone concerned while also ensuring that the school’s processes operate as efficiently as possible (and should).

This is why school psychologists are so crucial to schools and why they receive such a high level of funding. Furthermore, school counselors build long-term relationships with their pupils, enriching their lives in the process – and this is a major type of effect!

Also, Becoming a school counselor/psychologist is a basic professional route that requires some specialization after completing a master’s degree. A school counselor/annual psychologist’s income averages 297,988 Rupees.

Average Salary

Beginners – 1 L Per Annum

Mid Experienced – 3 L Per Annum

Highly Experienced – 8.2 L Per Annum

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

·       Is there a course in Psychology?

Yes, there are a number of courses in psychology and psychology courses are available at several levels in India, including diploma, certificate, bachelor’s degree, and postgraduate studies in psychology. In addition, there are numerous research-level courses as well as part-time or online Psychology courses. While psychology is a large subject in and of itself, every other course that requires students to learn about human anatomy and related areas includes basic psychology principles in its curriculum. Counseling, physiotherapy therapeutic, and other medical courses frequently include psychology as a subject. The study of human brain development, consciousness, behavior, and personality, as well as related topics, is required for a psychology course.

·       What is the scope of Psychology?

Psychology is a vast growing field and there is a wider scope of growth in this field especially in India. Psychology is becoming more popular in India, and demand is increasing. Following graduation, you will have the opportunity to work in a variety of fields.

Counselors

They are needed at NGOs, nursing homes, and rehabilitation centers, among other places, and are trained to comprehend their customers’ problems and to assist them in overcoming their difficulties. Some traumatic occurrences in the person’s life or a personal problem in relationships are examples of problems. Counselors’ responsibility in old-age homes is to guarantee that inhabitants do not feel lonely or worthless. Counselors in rehabilitation institutions (for example, drug abusers) assist patients in reducing their drug intake. They try to figure out what’s going on and how to help them get out of their bleak situation. Serious cases are not dealt with by them. A fresher’s typical monthly compensation is between 20 and 30 thousand dollars (approx).

Psychologist

Psychologists are needed in the education sector as school counselors, trainers, and career counselors, among other positions. During their educational years, they assist children. They also work with students who have learning disabilities or challenges with their behavior. Professional counselors, on the other hand, assist students in recognizing their abilities and determining the best career path for them. The psychology industry employs most psychologists. The average monthly wage for a fresher in the area is between 20 and 35 thousand dollars (approx).

Clinical Psychology

Clinical psychology: Clinical psychologists are in high demand these days. It’s a long road, and you should finish your M.Phil first before beginning solo practice. They deal with patients that require medical attention and aren’t usually involved in day-to-day issues. They use a variety of therapy and collaborate with a psychiatrist. The distinction between a clinical psychologist and a Psychiatrist is frequently misunderstood. Psychiatrists must first earn their MBBS and then pursue an MD with Psychiatry as a topic. They can prescribe medications, but clinical psychologists solely work with clients to provide therapy.

Organizational Psychology

Organizational Psychology: Organizational psychologists work in the Human Resource Development and HR departments of MNCs and enterprises. Their role entails dealing with employee issues as well as assisting employees in collaborating effectively as a team. A fresher’s average monthly salary is 30,000. (approx).

Research

Qualitative and quantitative research are both attractive fields for those with a passion for study. The average monthly remuneration for researchers is around 25,000. The sum will grow over time, and if the field interests you, you can seek a Ph.D.

 

·       What are the eligibility criteria for Psychology?

Eligibility for UG Psychology courses is based on the following criteria:

  • Candidates must have passed class 12th or equivalent education from a state or national school board in India.
  • Students from many academic fields, including Arts, Science, and Commerce, are welcome to apply to psychology programs.
  • Candidates who completed their qualifying education in class 12th from any open school board, such as the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS), are also eligible.

Candidates who have finished a bachelor’s degree in psychology as a major are eligible to enrol in this program.

  • Psychology should be considered as a primary topic in final year papers/subjects for the purposes of computing aggregate marks.
  • Candidates in their last year of a bachelor’s degree program are also welcome to apply.
  • Candidates with a bachelor’s degree in psychology obtained through distance education or the Open University are excluded.

 

·       What are common entrance exams for Psychology courses?

There are a number of entrance exams that are available for Psychology courses. Here are a few of them.

  • BHU UET
  • JMI Entrance Exam
  • Christ University Entrance Test
  • Central Universities Common Entrance Test
  • Symbiosis Entrance test
  • Manav Rachna National Aptitude Test (MRNAT)
  • NIMSEE

 

·       Who are the top recruiters of Psychology Course?

A large number of companies recruit Psychology graduates. Here are a few :

  • Tech Mahindra.
  • Tata Consultancy Services.
  • Popular Vehicles and Services.
  • Sesame Software Solutions.
  • Malayala Manorama.
  • The Indian Express.
  • Ameriprise Financial.

 

·       What is the average fees structure of Psychology?

Psychology covers a wide range of topics, including forensic sciences, clinical development, and many more. Above all, average tuition expenses for Psychology degrees range from INR 20,000 to INR 6.5 lakhs.

·       What are the course subjects in Psychology?

As we know, various subjects are offered in various courses of psychology. Here are a few courses and their subjects.

BSc Psychology

  • Psychopathology
  • Community Psychology
  • Human Resource Development
  • Statistics in Psychology
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Counseling Psychology
  • Organizational Behaviour
  • Foundations of Human Behavior

B.A in Psychology

  • Environmental Science
  • Psychology of Individual Differences (theory + Practical)
  • Statistical Methods for Psychological Research- I (Practical + Theory) English Communication
  • GE – 1
  • Biopsychology
  • Introduction to Psychology (Practical & theory)
  • GE – 2
  • Social Psychology (Practical & theory)
  • Statistical Methods for Psychological Research – II (Practical + Theory)
  • Psychological Research (Practical + Theory)
  • Applied Social Psychology (Practical + Theory)
  • Development of Psychological Thought (Practical & theory)
  • Understanding Psychological Disorders (Practical + Theory)
  • AEEC – 1
  • GE – 4
  • GE – 3
  • AEEC – 2
  • Understanding & Dealing with Psychological Disorders (Practical + Theory)
  • Counseling Psychology (Practical + Theory)
  • Development Psychology (Practical + Theory)
  • Organizational Behaviour (Practical + Theory)
  • DSE – 1 DSE – 3
  • DSE – 2 DSE – 4

 

·       What are the upcoming career trends in Psychology?

With the advancement in the health industry, several new professions have been trending lately especially in the field of psychology. Here are a few :

    • Genetics Counselor.
    • Sports Psychologist.
    • Industrial-Organizational Psychologist
    • School Psychologist
    • Counselor
    • Forensic Psychologist
    • Engineering Psychologist
    • Vocational Counselor

 

 

 

 

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List of Universities offering Psychology
List of Universities