Microbiology is the term used to refer to the study of microorganisms. Microorganisms play an important part in several processes affecting our day to day lives. Also, bacteria as well as archaea and viruses along with fungi and protozoa and algae are called microbes. The microbes serve an important part in the activities of biodegradation as well as climate change and food spoilage. Similarly, they are the cause as well as control of diseases. Due to this reason, they are used for preparing life-saving drugs and manufacturing biofuels. Besides, they are used in reducing pollution as well as the processing of food items.

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Therefore the study of microbiology becomes important in order to discover the ways in which these microbes can be used to improve the life of humans. Vaccines against diseases have been discovered using these microbes by microbiologists. Example Jenner discovered the vaccine for smallpox and Fleming discovered penicillin. Also, Marshall identified the connection between Helicobacter pylori infection as well as stomach ulcers. The study of microbiology is important for meeting global challenges of food, energy and water.

Microbiology as a subject of study has gained popularity over the years. Today, one can find that microbiology courses are offered by several reputed institutions across the country. Undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in the discipline can be obtained by students aspiring to become microbiologists. The specializations available in this discipline include applied microbiology and industrial microbiology. Similarly, food technology and clinical microbiology.

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The students upon obtaining a degree in microbiology become eligible for the jobs of food, industrial and environmental microbiologists. Also, they perform as quality assurance technologists and clinical or veterinary microbiologists. They can also be employed as a biomedical scientists and clinical research associates as well as a food technologists. These jobs have an average salary package ranging from Rs. 2, 00, 000- Rs. 3, 00, 000 per annum.

What is Microbiology?

The term microbiology refers to the study relating to microorganisms that are unicellular or multicellular or acellular. The discipline of microbiology comprises several sub-disciplines such as virology and bacteriology. Similarly, it includes protozoology and mycology as well as immunology and parasitology. Thus microbiology includes the study relating to microbes as well as microorganisms. The discipline of microbiology is required for studying the structure as well as the function of these organisms and classifying them accordingly. This is required for the exploitation as well as control of their activities.

The roots of microbiology can be traced back to the seventeenth-century discovery of the existence of living things invisible to the naked eye. Also, these invisible organisms were also discovered to be the cause and cure for several diseases and decay. It was in the nineteenth century that the term microbe was coined for describing such organisms. With the development of microbiology as a discipline, it was discovered that microbes are actually organisms of extreme diversity.

These microorganisms intermingle inseparably with human life. Besides, it is not just the human body that microbes reside in. They can be found in soil as well as water and air and make their presence felt both favourably and unfavourably. Similarly, the microorganisms, on one hand, cause disease and decay but on the other hand aid in fermentation processes. They also help in the manufacture and production of antibiotics as well as insulin. Therefore, microorganisms are of great value in human life and thus the study of these organisms becomes equally important.

Microorganisms:

Microorganisms were predicted hundreds of years before they were discovered by the Jains in India and Marcus Terentius Varro in Rome. The first microscope observation was reported in the year of 1666 by Robert Hooke. However, Athanasius Kircher who mentioned seeing germs in milk and rotten material in the year of 1658 was the first to view them. Later, in the 1670s Antonie van Leeuwenhoek known as the father of microbiology examined the microscopic organisms using primitive microscopes he designed. Louis Pasteur’s work in the 19th century paved the way for scientific microbiology. Furthermore, the development of medical microbiology is attributed to Robert Koch.

History of Microbiology

The history of microbiology is closely related to the discovery of microscopes. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to document his observations on a microscope. He had a hobby of grinding lenses and making microscopes and was the first to draw and describe protozoans from animal guts. Similarly, he found bacteria from the scrapings of teeth. His records were precise and accurate due to the high-quality lenses he used.

It was in the 1670s that Leeuwenhoek send his findings to the British Royal Society in the form of letters. However, no attempts were made to study or expand these observations even though they sparked some interest. Thus, the animalcules discovered by Leeuwenhoek remained unnoticeable. It was during the eighteenth century that the study of the role played by microorganisms in nature as well as the health and wellbeing of humans became significant.

Greeks of the ancient times believed non-living matter could give rise to living matter. Aristotle disagreed with this notion but affirmed that dissimilar organisms and soil could give rise to animals. Though this concept of spontaneous generation continued to believe till the seventeenth century, it later discarded. However, this idea of abiogenesis continued to debate for a long time.

In the first half of 1800s, Franz Schulze and Theodor Schwann tried to argue against the theory of abiogenesis. This was until Louis Pasteur announced the result of the conclusive experiments conducted by him in 1864. He proved with a precision that only microbes which were already existing could give rise to other microbes. Its known as biogenesis. The accurate and modern knowledge regarding bacteria developed by Ferdinand Cohn in the period between 1853- 1892.

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Girolamo Fracastoro developed the idea that an infection passing from one thing to another is what causes contagion. Also, Pasteur discovered the role played by bacteria in the fermentation process and in causing diseases. Furthermore, Robert Koch was the person who proved that specific diseases are caused by specific organisms.

Between around 1880 and 1900, the foundations of microbiology were solidly laid. Pasteur as well as Koch and others one after the other found a slew of microorganisms having the capability to cause certain diseases. Also, they developed a wide range of tools and techniques for showing the abilities as well as diversity of the microbe.

Microbiology did not become well-established in America until 1900s. In addition, many of the microbiologists working in the United States at the time completed their studies either under Koch or Pasteur Institute in Paris. Consequently, microbiology thrived in America once it was established. Particularly in relation to adjacent fields like biochemistry as well as genetics. David Bergey who was an American bacteriologist established the primary reference in science field in 1923 and its updated editions are still in use today.

Microbiology has had a highly prolific period since the 1940s during which many bacteria capable of causing diseases have been found and control measures created. Also, microorganisms have been successfully used in industries. Subsequently, microorganism research has also increased our understanding of all living beings. Microbes are straightforward to deal with and thus give a simple vehicle for understanding life’s intricate processes. As a result they’ve become an indispensable tool for molecular genetics and metabolic research.

Types of Microbiology

Microbiology discipline can be divided into two categories: pure microbiology and applied sciences. Also, microbiology can be classified on the basis of taxonomy into bacteriology as well as mycology. Similarly, they include the categories of protozoology as well as phycology. Certain fields of microbiology have a lot of overlap with each other and with other science disciplines. Subsequently, a few characteristics of these branches may also go beyond the scope of the traditional microbiology discipline. However, its known for one of the best branches of Microbiology, which a student would choose to excel in a career in Microbiology.

Generally, the field of microbiology can be separated into two branches: pure microbiology (fundamental branch) and applied microbiology (biotechnology). Organisms are researched as the subject on a deeper or theoretical level in the fundamental discipline. On the other hand, applied microbiology is concerned with the use of microorganisms in specific processes including brewing as well as fermentation. Organisms are frequently not examined as such, but rather used to maintain specific processes.

Pure Microbiology

Pure Microbiology consists of microbial genetics as well as immunology. Microbial genetics focuses on the study of the genetics of microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses as well as fungus. Scientists can learn more about the evolution of a microorganism by looking at its growth rate and generation cycle. Immunology is a branch of biology that focuses on the study of the immune system of an organism. Scientists study the immune system in order to treat ailments such as autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection as well as hypersensitivities.

Pure microbiology also consists of bacteriology as well as mycology and protozoology. Similarly, it includes mycology and algology along with parasitology. Bacteriology is the scientific study of bacteria and mycology is the science of fungi. Also, studying protozoa is known as protozoology. Furthermore, algology (phycology) refers to studying algae. Parasitology involves studying parasites. Immunology is the science of studying the immune system. Virology is the scientific study of viruses.

Nematology and the following other studies are also part of the microbiology discipline. Microbial cytology refers to studying microorganisms’ microscopic as well as submicroscopic features. Microbial physiology refers to how the biochemistry of a microbial cell works. Microbiology incorporates microbial growth and metabolism as well as cell structure. Microbiological pathogenesis includes learning of pathogens that are microorganisms. Microbial ecology studies the interactions between microorganisms and their surroundings.

The study of genetic are structuring and regulated in microorganisms in relation to biological functions is known as microbial genetics. Molecular biology is closely related to this topic. Cellular microbiology is a field that bridges the gap between microbiology as well as cell biology. Evolutionary microbiology studies microbial evolution. All the aforementioned categories are part of pure microbiology.

Applied Microbiology

Applied Microbiology consists of medical microbiology as well as biotechnology. Medical microbiologists specialize in the diagnosis as well as treatment and prevention of infectious illnesses. Furthermore, these researchers investigate bacteria in order to improve human health. A biotechnologist’s speciality is investigating techniques of employing live organisms to invent or produce items. Physicians can tailor medicines for their patients by the use of genetic engineering, as well as cell and tissue technology. All these form part of biotechnology.

Applied sciences or applied microbiology also consists of pharmaceutical, industrial and microbial microbiology. Similarly, it includes food, agricultural, veterinary and environmental microbiology. Pharmaceutical microbiology is the study of microbes that cause pharmaceutical spoilage and contamination. Also, they are involved in the synthesis of antibiotics and enzymes as well as vitamins and vaccines and other pharmaceutical products. Microbes are exploited for use in industries in industrial microbiology. Industrial fermentation and wastewater treatment are two examples of this. Besides, it is inextricably tied to the biotechnology sector. Brewing is another key application of microbiology in this discipline.

Microbial biotechnology is the genetic and molecular modification of microbes to produce useful goods. Microorganisms that cause food rotting and foodborne illnesses are studied in food microbiology. Besides it involves using microorganisms to make food such as through fermentation. Agricultural microbiology is the study of microorganisms that are relevant to agriculture. The study related to the role of bacteria in veterinary medicine and animal taxonomy is known as veterinary microbiology.

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Microbiology of the environment involves studying the function as well as diversity of bacteria in their natural habitats. Characterization of important bacterial habitat like the rhizosphere as well as phyllosphere, soil as well as groundwater ecosystem are all part of this process. Microorganisms found in water are studied in water microbiology (also known as aquatic microbiology). Studying airborne microorganisms is known as aero microbiology (or air microbiology). Recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering are examples of biotechnology.

Scope of Microbiology in India

India is a developing country with a vast population afflicted by diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis as well as cholera and HIV. This is mostly attributable to the pathogenic organisms’ multiple drug resistance mechanism. Microbiologists in India are tasked with figuring out how organisms acquire the resistance. Consequently they have to try to find new medications and block the pathway for harmful drug resisting strains. Wide research in this field conducted at a number of top research centers and hospitals with improved scientific technology and cheaper medical practice costs is predicted to propel microbiology discipline in India to the front.

In India, there are numerous employment options available after completing education in microbiology. Furthermore, employers are currently looking for microbiology graduates with scientific understanding and problem-solving skills and analytical abilities. Because of advancements in science & technology as well as the need for research on lethal bacteria capable of causing diseases, the scope in the discipline of microbiology has increased. Microbiologists are in high demand both in India and around the world. Also, the microbiologist develop new diagnostic tools and discover new medication and conducts research. After graduating one could consider earning a PhD in microbiology to continue to perform research in the field. A PhD degree provides up even more possibilities in the field of microbiology.

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Microbiological research that assures food and nourishment for people is always demanded in India, the country being an agrarian economy. This also includes research on nitrogen fixation and the rhizosphere as well as anaerobic breakdown in biogas production and soil enzymes and other issues. Furthermore, several government facilities such as the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the Indian Agricultural Research Institute constantly conduct research. Also, this research is conducted to develop crops that are resistant to a variety of stress factor such as pathogens and frost and heat.

Having a microbiology degree, a person can work in a variety of settings including institutions of higher education and hospitals. Similarly, healthcare institutions and laboratories of forensic science as well as environmental institutions. Furthermore, in pharmaceuticals and food as well as drugs and a variety of other industries. Also, one can work in both the public and private sectors.

Microbial genetics has lately emerged as a promising field. Eukaryotic and bacterial genomes are also being sequenced, and metagenomic research are in high demand. Therefore, in the following years, the influence of these investigations will be felt. Microbiology has a wide range of applications in the field of medicine and dairy as well as agriculture. Also, in clinical research and water treatment along with chemical technologies, as well as nanotechnology.

Eligibility Criteria for Microbiology in India

Microbiology is a rapidly expanding field of science in the current times. Every year, an increasing number of students choose this curriculum, and there is a high demand for microbiologists in various businesses. This is because microbiologists are scientists who study and investigate infectious agents and organisms. These organisms have the potential to affect our food and influence the climate change and their study will help us live in a safer future.

In order to be professional in microbiology, one must first have an undergraduate degree in microbiology such as a B.Sc. in microbiology. After completing the graduation they can apply for a postgraduate degree such as M.Sc. in Microbiology. These microbiology courses from a reputable science university will help one land jobs with top public as well as private companies. After finishing the Master’s degree in microbiology, one can study for a research program or PhD or M.Phil. Besides, this will help one to expand the understanding in the field. These credentials can help a person land a profitable job in the field of microbiology.

Eligibility Criteria:

A B.Sc. in microbiology is one of the best undergraduate microbiology courses available to the students who are interested in pursuing this discipline. However, to apply for this programme the student must have completed class 12th in the science stream with a minimum of 50% marks. After earning a B.Sc. degree one can pursue a postgraduate M.Sc. in microbiology. The student must have a B.Sc. in Microbiology or Botany or Zoology to pursue this programme.

After completing post graduation in microbiology with a minimum of 50% marks a person can pursue PhD or M. Phil programmes. Some of the best microbiological schools even hold their own entrance tests for PhD candidates.

Undergraduate degree:

  • The student must have received a minimum of 60% in class 12th examination and the student should have passed 12th from a recognized board.
  • Physics and Chemistry as well as Biology or Zoology or Botany must have been studied by the student as the core subjects in class 12th.
  • Entrance tests may be required as part of the admissions process at some colleges. These entrance exams are administered at the discretion of the various universities. The students intending to pursue the undergraduate courses in microbiology need to qualify these examinations.

Postgraduate education:

  • The candidate must have a graduate degree in B.Sc. and have minimum fifty per cent marks in the course. Also, the course should be offered by a competent university.
  • Some colleges require entrance exams as part of the admissions process. Candidates can apply for these tests if they meet the requirements listed in first part. The scores of these examinations are considered for providing postgraduate admissions.

Microbiology Entrance Exams

Admissions majority B. Sc microbiology course takes place on the basis of merit. However, there are a number of national as well as state level entrance examinations admission such as IPU CET and LPU NEST. Similarly, BHU UET and IISER IAT and so on. Candidates must have completed class 12th from a recognized board with a minimum of fifty per cent marks to be eligible for B. Sc. Microbiology programs. Microbiology (B.Sc.). Normally, admission costs range from Rs. 20,000 – Rs. 1, 50, 000.

1.      LPU NEST:

LPUNEST 2021 is an examination conducted at the university level for offering admission to several degree courses at Lovely Professional University. This includes admission to engineering as well as law and M. B. A. degrees. Also, the institution awards the candidates a scholarship of five lakh rupees based on their performance. The duration of the exam is hundred and fifty minutes. Besides, the examination is conducted online in roughly 200 places across India.

2.      Assam CEE:

Assam CEE is a combined entrance test for offering admissions to the undergraduate engineering courses in member institutions of Assam Science and Technology University in Guwahati. In order to apply for the examination the minimum age shall be 17 years old and the maximum age should not be more than 22 years old. In addition, those who pass the exam will be invited to Assam CEE Counselling. Around 1200 seats in undergraduate engineering degree at participating institutions will be made available through Assam CEE.

3.      AMUEEE:

Every year Aligarh Muslim University holds AMUEEE to select students for admissions to B. Tech and B.E. and B. Arch programs. AMUEEE is open to students who have passed class 12th with a 50 per cent marks in physics and chemistry along with english and mathematics. Furthermore, the test consists of hundred and fifty MCQs worth one mark foe each question. However, negative mark will not be given for wrong answers. Moreover, the AMUEEE test will include questions from the 11th and 12th grade subjects of physics and chemistry and mathematics.

4.      BHU UET:

The National Testing Agency NTA conducts BHU UET examination in order to admit students to the university’s B. A. and B. Sc. and B. Com degrees. Similarly, for B. Ed and LL. B. and B. VSc as well as BPA programs. Students seeking admission to BHU must meet the minimal eligibility requirements, which include having completed intermediate with a minimum of 50% marks.

5.      IISER:

IISER refers to the Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research and it is a well-known Indian institution that provides science and research education. SCB State and Central Boards Channel and KVPY Kishor Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana exam and JEE Advanced exam will be used to determine IISER admission. Students may apply to all three channels however they must first meet the eligibility requirements for each of them before applying. Mohali and Tirupati as well as Berhampur and Pune. Similarly Bhopal and Kolkata along with Thiruvananthapuram are the places where India’s seven IISER Institutions are situated.

This was about the undergraduate admission, now we’ll talk about the postgraduate degree in microbiology. Each institution or university in India holds a unique master’s degree entrance exam for offering M.Sc. in microbiology. The following are some of the entrance examinations conducted for offering postgraduate degree in microbiology. The microbiology entrance exams conducted in India are:

1.      Indian Institute of Science and Research IISc Entrance Exam/ IISER

2.      Mahatma Gandhi University Faculty of Applied Science Entrance Exam

3.      University of Calicut Microbiology Entrance Exam

4.      University of Kerala Faculty of Science Microbiology Entrance Exam

5.      Aligarh Muslim University Microbiology Entrance Exam

6.      Assam University Microbiology Entrance Exam

7.      Banaras Hindu University Microbiology Entrance Exam

8.      Goa University Microbiology Entrance Exam

9.      Guru Nanak Dev University Microbiology Entrance Exam

10.  Himachal Pradesh University Shimla Microbiology Entrance Exam

11.  Lovely Professional University Microbiology Entrance Exam

12.  Biotechnology and IIT JAM Entrance Exams

13.  Manipal Academy of Higher Education Microbiology Entrance Exam

14.  Osmania University Microbiology Entrance Exam

15.  University of Pune Microbiology Entrance Exam

The application forms for these examinations would cost between Rs. 500- Rs. 2000. Those students who are intending to take the exams can obtain an application from the pertinent institution’s counter or download it from the institution’s official website. Also, students can request a paper copy of the form by post. After filling the form the students must submit it along with all other paperwork, to the specified address before the deadline.

Top Microbiology Courses in India

Microbiology courses are available at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. In India, there are several reputed institutions offering undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in microbiology. Besides, these courses are available in several sub disciplines and specializations. The undergraduate B. Sc. degree in microbiology offers the specializations of clinical microbiology as well as industrial microbiology. Similarly, it offers food technology and applied microbiology along with molecular biology specializations. Furthermore, the postgraduate M. Sc. degree is available in the specialisations including applied microbiology and microbial genetics and bioinformatics. Also, in biomedical sciences and biomolecular sciences along with parasitology and immunology.

Top Microbiology Courses for Bachelors in India

B Sc.:

In its three-year undergraduate program B. Sc. microbiology involves a thorough study and examination of microbes and their effects on human body. The syllabus of B. Sc. microbiology includes study of several types of viruses as well as bacteria as well as how these work in the cells of human. Besides, the students should have completed their Class 12th or examination from a recognized board for being eligible for the degree. Also, the students must have studied physics as well as chemistry and biology as their core subjects in class 12th. Microbiologist jobs are plentiful, with chances available in a variety of industries.

The need for microbiologists is steadily increasing at a rate of 3% every year. With the outbreak of the pandemic last year, the number of available vacancies for the post of microbiologists grew to 32.13 per cent. Furthermore, the typical expenses for pursuing a B. Sc. degree in microbiology program at India’s best microbiology colleges range from Rs. 20,000- Rs. 50,000. Additionally, molecular ecology and molecular biology as well as immunology. Similarly, enzymes technology as well as industrial microbiology and such other topics are covered in the curriculum of B. Sc. microbiology.

The annual expenses for a B. Sc. microbiology program typically ranges from Rs. 20,000- Rs. 2,000,000. The majority of admissions for B. Sc. in microbiology are based on merit. However, only a few colleges administer their own entrance tests. Also, AMUEEE as well as LPUNEST and Assam CEE and HPU MAT etc. and others are among the top entrance examinations for B. Sc. in microbiology. The most frequent types of courses in this discipline taken by Indian students include regular as well as part-time and distance degrees in Microbiology.

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NIMS University as well as Madras Christian College and LPU and Fergusson College. Similarly Mount Carmel college and Ethiraj College for Women etc. some of the institutions offering B. Sc. in microbiology. Some of the job roles available after this degree, in India, are that of a microbiologist and operations manager and senior business analyst. Similarly, that of a senior research scientist and quality control microbiologist as well as a clinical research associate.  The average yearly income for B. Sc. microbiology graduates ranges from Rs 3, 00, 000 to Rs. 5, 00, 000. Furthermore, this varies according to the candidate’s experience in the discipline.

List of Top B. Sc. Colleges in India

College Name Affiliated University Cut Off
St. Xavier’s College Mumbai    
Amity University Mumbai    
Manav Rachna University Faridabad    
Starex University Gurgaon    
Maulana Abdul Kalam University of Technology Kolkata    
Brainware University Kolkata    
Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology Chennai    
Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research Chennai    

Average Fees for B. Sc.: Rs. 20,000- Rs. 2,000,000

Admission Criteria for B. Sc.: Entrance based as well as merit-based.

Types of Jobs after B. Sc.: Microbiologist Operations Manager and Senior Business Analyst. Similarly, Senior Research Scientist and Quality Control Microbiologist as well as Clinical Research Associate.

Average Placements after B. Sc.: Rs 3, 00, 000 to Rs. 5, 00, 000.

Top Microbiology Courses for Masters in India

M Sc.:

In India, M. Sc. Microbiology (Master of Science in Microbiology) is a two-year postgraduate degree program. It studies living creatures and their interactions with the environment by combining the sciences of biology and chemistry. Besides, to apply for the microbiology M. Sc. program, one must have a graduation degree. The B. Sc. degree should be from a recognized university with a minimum grade point average of 50% or higher.

M Sc. microbiology admission in institutions such as Delhi University and Jawaharlal Nehru University and others is largely based on admission exam scores. IPU CET and DUET as well as JNUEE are some of the prominent entrance exams. The course is structured into four semesters that address various parts of the programs such as biostatistics and immunology. Every student who enrols in the program is required to complete many research projects and attend laboratory sessions.

Bioenergetics as well as molecular enzymology and molecular immunology along with bioinstrumentation and microbial physiology. Similarly, food and dairy microbiology and microbial diversities and such topics are covered in the course syllabus. In addition, the fees of this masters degree Rs. 20,000- Rs. 1, 00, 000. Salary for M. Sc. holders range from Rs. 3, 50, 000- 7, 00, 000. The job roles available to these degree holders are that of microbiologist and research assistant. Similarly, that of pharmacologist and nutritionist and research analyst. Mascot International and Siron Technology Pvt. Ltd. Also, Lakshmi Life Sciences Ltd and Panacea Biotec Limited along with Serum Institute of India are among the top recruiters.

List of Top M. Sc. Colleges in India

College Name Affiliated University Cut Off/Merit Based
St. Xavier’s College Mumbai    
Ramnarain Ruia Autonomous College    
Fergusson College    
St. Joseph’s College    
Amity University    
Presidency College    
The Oxford College of Science    

Average Fees for M. Sc.: Rs. 20,000- Rs. 1, 00, 000

Admission Criteria for M. Sc.: Entrance based and merit based

Types of Jobs after M. Sc.: Microbiologist and Research Assistant as well as Pharmacologist and Nutritionist along with Research Analyst.

Average Placements after M. Sc.: Rs. 3, 50, 000- 7, 00, 000.

Ph.D. in Microbiology

Ph. D. Microbiology is a three- to five-year doctoral program that aims to give qualified applicants research expertise in a variety of microbiology disciplines. It is primarily concerned with the in depth study of microscopic and unicellular as well as cell cluster organisms. The students intending to pursue this program should have post-graduation in the relevant discipline.  Additionally, they should have minimum 55 per cent aggregate score to be eligible for this program. Many institutions require at least five years of expertise in the discipline of microbiology.

The scores obtained by the students in entrance examinations are usually used to determine admission to Ph. D. Microbiology programs. However, there are a few universities that provide admissions on the basis of merit. GATE and UGC NET as well as CSIR UGC NET are the entrance examinations conducted for Ph. D. admissions. Depending upon the institution offering Ph. D. the average yearly fee ranges from Rs. 2,000- Rs. 8, 00, 000. Besides, students upon completion of this program are employed as technical specialist and medical technologist Also, as laboratory scientist and lecturer and at other positions in the food industry.

In India, the average yearly salary offered to this doctorate degree holders ranges from Rs. 8, 00, 000- Rs. 16,00,000. Also, this salary varies according to the skills of the candidate. Candidates can pursue further research after receiving their Ph. D. in Microbiology. They have the ability get their research papers published. In case they have four to five years of experience in research after PhD, they’re eligible for a D. Sc. degree in relevant discipline.

Colleges/Universities offering PhD in Microbiology

College Name Affiliated University Eligibility
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi    
University of Calcutta, Kolkata    
University of Hyderabad    
Vels Institute of Science, Technology and Advanced Studies    
SRM Institute of Technology    
Mahatma Gandhi University    
Utkal University, Bhubaneswar    

Average Fees for Ph.D. in Microbiology: Rs. 2,000- Rs. 8, 00, 000.

Admission Criteria for Ph.D. in Microbiology: Merit based as well as entrance based

Average Placements after Ph.D. in Microbiology: Rs. 8, 00, 000- Rs. 16, 00, 000

What to do after Ph.D. in Microbiology?

Microbiologists are highly demanded in the medical research as well as quality control alongside biotechnology industries these days. Many researchers go on to work in universities and pharmaceutical firms and bioscience companies around the world. Also, students can also pursue professions in clinical and technical roles including research after completing Ph. D. in microbiology. For those interested in pursuing a career in the subject of microbiology, there are numerous job options.

Microbiologists can work in a variety of settings such as government as well as private hospitals and food manufacturing companies. Similarly, research & development institutes and chemical manufacturing and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Besides, these degree holders can also pursue career as a lab scientist, conducting research for environmental benefit. Furthermore, the pay of Microbiology Ph. D. graduates is determined by a number of criteria, including their education and experience as well as job title.

Students with a Ph. D. in Microbiology can pursue careers as microbiologists and bacteriologists as well as virologists. Also, as epidemiologists and biological technicians. A PhD Microbiology degree holder can work in a variety of fields in both the private and public sectors. In addition, students who earn this degree can pursue a career in research as a research scientist. One can also pursue the teaching career as a professor at a global institution. As a result, after earning this degree, one can apply for some of the best jobs in the world or pursue research. Candidates can acquire a D. Sc. degree after finishing this course if they do research activity for a period of four to five years after completing their PhD.

Microbiology Job Roles & Levels in India

Microorganisms play a devastating part in the pandemics. However these hidden organisms can only be controlled and examined with the help of a microbiologists. Microbes have important roles to play in food production as well as environmental science and medicinal research. The microbiology course has recently grown in popularity as a result of an increasing no. of students wishing to study microbiology as a discipline.

Microbiology is a broad field that provides students with a wide range of employment options. When you graduate with a degree in microbiology and enter the professional world, you will have a plethora of options. To give you a sense of what is possible in the discipline of microbiology, below is a list of career options:

Microbiologist: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

Microbiologists study microscopic creatures and microbes along with their life processes. This is a highly paid research profession in which on can work on the biology of microbes at both molecular as well as cellular level, making it one of the most sought-after career paths in Microbiology. Also, the services of microbiologists are required in the fields of agriculture and biotechnology as well as the environment. Similarly, in the pharmaceutical companies and hospitals.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs. 3, 12, 740

Immunologist: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

An immunologist is a physician who specializes in the treatment of allergies and immune system problems. Therefore, an immunologist is actually a doctor that specializes in the treatment of disorders that affect the immune system. They research the functioning of the immune system and try to figure out how to protect it from hazardous microorganisms. They do this by researching the effects of numerous micro compounds on the human body and attempting to find a remedy.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs. 15, 50, 000

Mycologist: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

Mycology is the study of various types of fungi in order to fathom their positive and negative effects on the human body. Some kinds of fungi are extremely toxic and can cause illnesses, while others can be used to create classic machines. Therefore, mycologists devote their work to establishing this line of demarcation.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs. 4, 33, 536

Professor/ Lecturer: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

The job of a lecturer entails instructing students in a variety of Microbiology courses according to their specialization. If a person is interested in teaching and finds himself capable of carrying out the job, they can opt for this profession.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs. 4, 30, 797

Clinical Research Scientist: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

A clinical research associate’s job is to run clinical studies to investigate the nature along with benefits and drawbacks of medications. A CRA determines whether or not specific pharmaceuticals allowed on the market. Besides, they can work for a contract research organization or a pharmaceutical business to test new and existing drugs. They will also be included in all stages of the tests that are currently being conducted. Furthermore, they have to keep track of drug effects and precautions by testing them on a healthy person or a patient or animal.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs. 3, 44, 254

Food Technologist: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

Food technologists, as the name implies, guarantee that items on the market meet quality standards. Also, they investigate the process of manufacture to figure out the mistakes in recipes. They can add their own newly discovered substances to the cuisine to boost its nutritional value. So, in essence, they have the ability to manipulate a food’s nutritional value.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs. 7, 50, 000

Medical Technologist: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

A medical technologist is a health practitioner who performs tests on patients’ body fluids in order to identify abnormalities and treat them accordingly. They are in charge of carrying out tests and experiments in laboratories in order to diagnose the patient’s condition. They’re also in charge of maintenance and operation of all of the lab’s equipment.

Cosmetic Scientist: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

A cosmetic scientist is responsible for not only developing skincare and hair care products but also testing them scientifically to see if they have any negative effects on their users.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs. 4, 70, 400

Pharmacologist: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

A pharmacologist is an expert in the effects of medications and other forms of drugs on humans and animals. They undertake studies to help in developing and discovering novel pharmaceuticals that will benefit people. Furthermore, they have the same rights as a Clinical Research Associate when it comes to doing research on animal tissues. Also, they conduct test first on animals to ensure that no humans are harmed throughout the study.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs. 8, 00, 000

Frequently Asked Questions About Microbiology in India

Q1 Explain the historical significance of Microbiology?

  • The history of microbiology is closely related with the discovery of microscope. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to document his observations on a microscope. He had a hobby of grinding lenses and making microscopes and was the first to draw and describe protozoans from animal guts. Similarly, he found bacteria from the scrapings of teeth. His records were precise and accurate due to the high quality lenses he used.
  • Microbiology did not become well-established in America until 1900s. In addition, many of the microbiologists working in the United States at the time completed their studies either under Koch or Pasteur Institute in Paris. Consequently, microbiology thrived in America once it established. Particularly in relation to adjacent fields like biochemistry as well as genetics. David Bergey who was an American bacteriologist established the primary reference in a science field in 1923 and its updated editions still in use today.
  • Microbiology has had a highly prolific period since the 1940s during which many bacteria capable of causing diseases have found and control measures created. Also, microorganisms have successfully used in industries. Subsequently, microorganism research has also increased our understanding of all living beings. Microbes are straightforward to deal with and thus give a simple vehicle for understanding life’s intricate processes. As a result they’ve become an indispensable tool for molecular genetics and metabolic research.

Q2 What are the different types of Microbiology discipline?

  • Microbiology discipline can be divided into two categories: pure microbiology and applied sciences. Also, microbiology can be classified on the basis taxonomy into bacteriology as well as mycology. Similarly, they include the categories of protozoology as well as phycology. Certain fields of microbiology have a lot of overlap with each other and with other science disciplines. Subsequently, a few characteristics of these branches may also go beyond the scope of traditional microbiology discipline.
  • Generally, the field of microbiology can separated into two branches: pure microbiology (fundamental branch) and applied microbiology (biotechnology). Organisms researched as the subject on a deeper or theoretical level in the fundamental discipline. On the other hand applied microbiology is concerned with the use of microorganisms in specific processes including brewing as well as fermentation. Organisms frequently not examined as such, but rather used to maintain specific processes.

Pure Microbiology-

  • Pure Microbiology consists of microbial genetics as well as immunology. Microbial genetics focuses on the study of genetics of microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses as well as fungus. Scientists can learn more about the evolution of a microorganism by looking at its growth rate and generation cycle. Immunology is a branch of biology that focuses on the study of the immune system of an organism. Scientists study the immune system in order to treat ailments such as autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection as well as hypersensitivities.
  • Pure microbiology also consists of bacteriology as well as mycology and protozoology. Similarly, it includes mycology and algology along with parasitology. Bacteriology is the scientific study of bacteria and mycology is the science of fungi. Also, studying protozoa is known as protozoology. Furthermore, algology (phycology) refers to studying algae. Parasitology involves studying parasites. Immunology is the science of studying the immune system. Virology is the scientific study regarding viruses.

Nematology-

  • Nematology and the following other studies are also part of microbiology discipline. Microbial cytology refers to studying microorganisms’ microscopic as well as submicroscopic features. Microbial physiology refers to how the biochemistry of a microbial cell works. Microbiology incorporates microbial growth and metabolism as well as cell structure. Microbiological pathogenesis includes learning of pathogens that are microorganisms. Microbial ecology studies the interactions between microorganisms and their surroundings.
  • The study genetic are structuring and regulation in microorganisms in relation to the biological functions is known as microbial genetics. Molecular biology is closely related to this topic. Cellular microbiology is a field that bridges the gap between microbiology as well as cell biology. Evolutionary microbiology studies microbial evolution. All the aforementioned categories are part of the pure microbiology.

Applied Microbiology-

  • Applied Microbiology consists of medical microbiology as well as biotechnology. Medical microbiologists specialize in the diagnosis as well as treatment and prevention of infectious illnesses. Furthermore, these researchers investigate bacteria in order to improve human health. A biotechnologist’s specialty is investigating techniques of employing live organisms to invent or produce items. Physicians can tailor medicines for their patients by the use of genetic engineering, as well as cell and tissue technology. All these form part of biotechnology.
  • Applied sciences or applied microbiology also consists of pharmaceutical, industrial and microbial microbiology. Similarly, it includes food, agricultural, veterinary and environmental microbiology. Pharmaceutical microbiology is the study of microbes that cause pharmaceutical spoilage and contamination. Also, they involved in the synthesis of antibiotics and enzymes as well as vitamins and vaccines and other pharmaceutical products. Microbes exploited for use in industries in industrial microbiology. Industrial fermentation and wastewater treatment are two examples of this. Besides, its inextricably tied to the biotechnology sector. Brewing is another key application of microbiology in this discipline.

Microbial biotechnology-

  • Microbial biotechnology is the genetic and molecular modification of microbes to produce useful goods. Microorganisms that cause food rotting and foodborne illnesses are studied in food microbiology. Besides it involves using microorganisms to make food such as through fermentation. Agricultural microbiology is the study of microorganisms that are relevant to agriculture. The study related to the role of bacteria in veterinary medicine and animal taxonomy known as veterinary microbiology.
  • Microbiology of the environment involves studying the function as well as diversity of bacteria in their natural habitats. Characterization of important bacterial habitat like the rhizosphere as well as phyllosphere, soil as well as groundwater ecosystem are all part of this process. Microorganisms found in water studied in water microbiology (also known as aquatic microbiology). Studying airborne microorganisms known as aero microbiology (or air microbiology). Recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering are examples of biotechnology.

Q3 Describe the various undergraduate and postgraduate courses available in Microbiology discipline?

  • B Sc.: In its three-year undergraduate program B. Sc. microbiology involves a thorough study and examination of microbes and their effects on human body. The syllabus of B. Sc. microbiology includes study of several types of viruses as well as bacteria as well as how these work in the cells of human. Besides, the students should have completed their Class 12th or examination from a recognized board for being eligible for the degree. Also, the students must have studied physics as well as chemistry and biology as their core subjects in class 12th. Microbiologist jobs are plentiful, with chances available in a variety of industries.
  • The need for microbiologists is steadily increasing at a rate of 3% every year. With the outbreak of the pandemic last year, the number of available vacancies for the post of microbiologists grew to 32.13 per cent. Furthermore, the typical expenses for pursuing a B. Sc. degree in microbiology program at India’s best microbiology colleges range from Rs. 20,000- Rs. 50,000. Additionally, molecular ecology and molecular biology as well as immunology. Similarly, enzymes technology, as well as industrial microbiology and such other topics, covered in the curriculum of B. Sc. microbiology.
  • The annual expenses for a B. Sc. microbiology program typically range from Rs. 20,000- Rs. 2,000,000. The majority of admissions for B. Sc. in microbiology are based on merit. However, only a few colleges administer their own entrance tests. Also, AMUEEE, as well as LPUNEST and Assam CEE and HPU MAT etc. and others, are among the top entrance examinations for B. Sc. in microbiology. The most frequent types of courses in this discipline taken by Indian students include regular as well as part-time and distance degrees in Microbiology.

College for B Sc Microbiology-

  • NIMS University as well as Madras Christian College and LPU and Fergusson College. Similarly Mount Carmel college and Ethiraj College for Women etc some of the institutions offering B. Sc. in microbiology. Some of the job roles available after this degree, in India, are that of a microbiologist operations manager and senior business analyst. Similarly, that of a senior research scientist and quality control microbiologist as well as a clinical research associate. The average yearly income for B. Sc. microbiology graduates ranges from Rs 3, 00, 000 to Rs. 5, 00, 000. Furthermore, this varies according to the candidate’s experience in the discipline.
  • M Sc: In India, M. Sc. Microbiology (Master of Science in Microbiology) is a two-year postgraduate degree program. It studies living creatures and their interactions with the environment by combining the sciences of biology and chemistry. Besides, to apply for the microbiology M. Sc. program, one must have a graduation degree. The B. Sc. degree should be from a recognized university with a minimum grade point average of 50% or higher.
  • Sc. microbiology admission in institutions such as Delhi University and Jawaharlal Nehru University and others is largely based on admission exam scores. IPU CET and DUET as well as JNUEE are some of the prominent entrance exams. The course structured into four semesters that address various parts of the programs such as biostatistics and immunology. Every student who enrols in the program required to complete many research projects and attend laboratory sessions.

Bioenergetics-

  • Bioenergetics as well as molecular enzymology and molecular immunology along with bio-instrumentation and microbial physiology. Similarly, food and dairy microbiology and microbial diversities and such topics covered in the course syllabus. In addition, the fees of this masters degree Rs. 20,000- Rs. 1, 00, 000. Salary for M. Sc. holders ranges from Rs. 3, 50, 000- 7, 00, 000. The job roles available to these degree holders are that of microbiologist and research assistant. Similarly, that of pharmacologists and nutritionists and research analysts. Mascot International and Siron Technology Pvt. Ltd. Also, Lakshmi Life Sciences Ltd and Panacea Biotec Limited along with Serum Institute of India are among the top recruiters.

Q4 What is the scope of the Microbiology discipline in India?

  • India is a developing country with a vast population afflicted by diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis as well as cholera and HIV. This is mostly attributable to the pathogenic organisms’ multiple drug resistance mechanism. Microbiologists in India tasked with figuring out how organisms acquire the resistance. Consequently, they have to try to find new medications and block the pathway for harmful drug resisting strains. Wide research in this field conducted at a number of top research centres and hospitals with improved scientific technology and cheaper medical practice costs predicted to propel the microbiology discipline in India to the front.
  • Microbiology as a subject of study has gained popularity over the years. Today, one can find that microbiology courses offered by several reputed institutions across the country.
  • In India, there are numerous employment options available after completing education in microbiology. Furthermore, employers are currently looking for microbiology graduates with scientific understanding and problem-solving skills and analytical abilities. Because of advancements in science & technology as well as the need for research on lethal bacteria capable of causing diseases, the scope in the discipline of microbiology has increased. Microbiologists are in high demand both in India and around the world. Also, the microbiologist develops new diagnostic tools and discover new medication and conducts research. After graduating one could consider earning a PhD in microbiology to continue to perform research in the field. A PhD degree provides up even more possibilities in the field of microbiology. It gives the student an excellent opportunity to pursue a great career in the stream of Microbiology.

Advantages-

  • Microbiological research that assures food and nourishment for people always demanded in India, the country is an agrarian economy. This also includes research on nitrogen fixation and the rhizosphere as well as an anaerobic breakdown in biogas production and soil enzymes and other issues. Furthermore, several government facilities such as the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the Indian Agricultural Research Institute constantly conduct research. Also, this research conducted to develop crops that are resistant to a variety of stress factors such as pathogens and frost and heat.
  • Having a microbiology degree, a person can work in a variety of settings including institutions of higher education and hospitals. Similarly, healthcare institutions and laboratories of forensic science as well as environmental institutions. Furthermore, in pharmaceuticals and food as well as drugs and a variety of other industries. Also, one can work in both the public and private sectors.
  • Microbial genetics has lately emerged as a promising field. Eukaryotic and bacterial genomes also sequenced, and metagenomic research in high demand. Therefore, in the following years, the influence of these investigations will felt. Microbiology has a wide range of applications in the field of medicine and dairy as well as agriculture. Also, in clinical research and water treatment along with chemical technologies, as well as nanotechnology.
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List of Universities offering Microbiology
List of Universities