Information Technology: Meaning, Types, Scope, Courses, Jobs & More (2021)  

Information Technology refers to the technical application used in organizations as well as businesses for problem-solving. In the first place information Technology comprises of engineering disciplines involved in the manipulation and modulation of hardware as well as software. Also, Information Technology involves developing and learning methods of solving technical issues. Furthermore, the field of information technology involves the study of the technical aspects aiding the effectiveness of fulfilling organizational needs. Ordinarily, an information technology professional can be a computer programmer or a web developer. 

In addition, he can also work as a support specialist and IT Technician as well as Network Engineer. Besides they can be software engineer and computer scientist as well as data scientist. Therefore the courses offered in IT include B. Tech./ B. E./ B. Sc. as well as M. Tech. degrees. Generally, it includes multiple specializations such as data science and cloud computing as well as cyber security. Above all it includes study of blockchain and data visualization along with artificial intelligence and machine learning. 

India has been constantly shifting towards the information age where technology is the base of all developments and innovations. Similarly, it incorporated computers and computer systems in its developmental processes. Computers and technical innovations thus became an integral part of this transition. Educational institutions started offering courses to improve and enhance the computer and technological skills of individuals. Hence, information technology became a part of education and manufacturing as well as management. There has been an increasing dependence on information technology as a tool for aiding businesses. Consequently, the scope of Information technology is ever increasing specially in current times. 

Table of Contents

 

What is Information Technology?  

The term information technology refers to the creation as well as processing and storage along with the exchange of electronic data using computers. Besides, the primary usage of information technology is in the field of businesses. Also, information technology consists of the use of computer software and hardware as well as equipment used by information technology professionals. Furthermore, human beings have stored and communicated data and information since 3000 BC. This was the time around which writing was developed in Mesopotamia by Sumerians. In addition, the article published in the year of 1958 by the Harvard Business Review introduced the term ‘Information Technology in its present day meaning. 

Harold J Leavittt as well as Thomas L Whisler gave the name information technology to the new technology and defined it as consisting of processing techniques. Hence, it was also found to include application of mathematical as well as statistical methods for decision making and high order thinking. Usually the term information technology is said to include computers as well as computer systems. But in reality it includes communication technologies like telephones as well as televisions used for transmitting the information. 

The development of information technology over the years can be categorized into four periods or phases. Moreover, this categorization is based upon the technologies used for storing as well as processing. The first phase is known as the pre-mechanical stage of development which began in 3000 BC and lasted till 1450 AD. The second phase of development called the mechanical phase begun in 1450 and lasted till 1840. The third phase of development called electromechanical started in 1840 and continued till 1940. The final stage of the categorization called the electronic phase began in 1940 and continues till date. 

History of Information Technology   

Human beings have used devices for computation and calculation for a thousand years. It began from the tally system used in ancient times. Since BC first century, a mechanical computer using analog mechanism known as the Antikythera mechanism was being used. Besides, this might have been the earliest known geared mechanism. Subsequently, in sixteenth century Europe similar geared devices appeared. Furthermore, in the year of 1645, a mechanical calculator was developed having the ability to perform basic arithmetic operations. 

It was in the 1940s that electronic computers entered the picture. The first computer capable of performing programs and one of the first complete machines for computing was Zues Z3. This electromechanical device was developed in the year of 1941. In addition, it was during the period of second world war that the first electronic computer was developed by Colossus. As such, this digital computer had been developed with the purpose of decoding messages from Germans. However, it was unable to store programs in its memory and thus Manchester Baby was developed in 1948. Having the ability to store programs Manchester Baby became the first electronic modern digital computer of its kind. 

Bell Laboratories in the 1940s developed transistors enabling the designing of computers consuming less power. Besides, Ferranti Mark, I was the first stored-program computer available in the commercial market. It had four thousand valves and consumed around twenty five kilowatts of power. In comparison to the older computer systems, the transistor-based computers consumed only hundred and fifty watts of power. 

Types of Information Technology  

Various businesses in modern times require various kind of information technology as well as information technology systems. Furthermore, there are a number of information technology types that undertake several activities of the business organizations. Besides, the technical software and hardware using information technology provide help in decision making and problem-solving. In addition, it also includes methods and techniques of risk management and dealing with operations. Therefore, the information technology discipline is said to compromise of algorithms and analytics. It also includes a management information system and risk management system along with a decision support system. The various categories of information technology disciplines are given below: 

Algorithms and Analytics  

Algorithms consist of the procedures involved in problem solving as well as decision making. Analytics on the other hand refers to discovering information which is meaningful, from the data. Analytics software is used for a particular data type like web analytics and such others. Also, certain general tools of analytics are also offered as business software. 

Hardware and Software  

The information technology services are available in the form of different hardware and software systems. Moreover, the businesses these days require hardware in the form of laptops, computers and workstations. Information Technology helps the hardware systems reliable and secure. Therefore, no valuable data or confidential information of the business is lost. Hence, information technology software helps the business keep their systems and licenses up to date. Also, it reduces the cost and improves the efficiency of computer software employed by the companies. Besides, the information technology software primarily used is software asset management. 

Cloud Computing  

Information technology services offer cloud computing facilities to the businesses. Furthermore, they offer security to confidential data including client information and other such data. Subsequently, the information technology helps in getting the cloud applications and managing it. They also provide security to the cloud from external threats and attacks. Moreover, the information technology this helps the organization to focus on their main work and not get distracted in managing the cloud applications. 

Cyber Security  

With the advent of technology, cyber security has gained popularity. Besides, the information technology services helps the businesses and their clients safe from cyber attacks. In addition, the malwares and other such forms of intrusions into the data can be avoided by availing the IT services. Therefore, information technology services help the businesses not only to meet their present needs but also secure their future. 

Risk Management Software  

The term risk management software includes those software which undertake the governance of risk. These software look after the control as well as analysis processes of the business. Thereby, the risk management software are often used by a particular industry and limited to a type of risk. Hence, these software help in the identification of risk and elimination of the identified risk. 

Decision Support System  

This system of information technology helps the organization in decision making. It does so by collecting and gathering information required in the decision making process. Also, the decision support system manages large and complex information. In addition, it converts the complex information into simple and understandable data. Information can also be added or eliminated from the system. Consequently, it helps the managers and other such persons in arriving at the decisions easily and with precision. 

Office Automation System and Knowledge Management System  

Office automation system comprises of the tools and techniques for performing managerial as well as clerical functions. Furthermore, the works such as printing of documents and mailing and creating reports can be done using OAS. It can also be combined with email and word applications to ensure the availability of all data at a single place. Knowledge management system helps in the enhancement of knowledge. This is done by providing documents for training employees and answering customer’s queries. To summarize, this system is used by employees as well as customers and management. Therefore, it a system for knowledge sharing and knowledge enhancement. 

Scope of Information Technology in India  

  • Information Technology and businesses in the words of Bill Gates have become interwoven. In India, with the advent of digitalization the role of information technology has become crucial. Not only in terms of businesses, it operates in the field of healthcare and education along with many other areas. Besides, the automation of business processes as well as the decision making systems have proven highly efficient. 
  • Moving towards making India a digital hub, the country has been increasingly depending on information technology services. More and more business are incorporating information technology services into their workings in order to increase their productivity. Education in information technology disciplines are also gaining popularity. Therefore, bachelor’s degree, as well as postgraduate and doctoral degrees, are available in information technology disciplines. Hence, students are also opting for certificate courses and diplomas in these disciplines. 
  • Several educational institutions offer courses in information technology disciplines in India. These include NIIT as well as APTECH institutions. Moreover, the information technology professionals get placed in managerial positions and perform technical operations. Also, companies such as BHEL and Infosys as well as Microsoft offer job opportunities to these professionals. They are offered lucrative salaries ranging up to Rs. 1. 3 lakhs per month. In addition, the IT professionals are employed in designations of programmers and software developers as well as system analysts. 

Eligibility Criteria for Information Technology in India  

The eligibility criteria for information technology courses is set by the All India Council for Technical Education AICTE. The eligibility criteria this set by the council is fifty percentage marks for students from general category. Furthermore, the students belonging to reserved category should have obtained minimum forty five percentage marks. Also, the private institutions have a separate eligibility criteria which requires the students to have obtained pass percentage only. The eligibility criteria for the different information technology courses are as follows: 

Eligibility for B. Tech./ B. E. courses in Information Technology: 

In order to apply for the B. Tech., B. E. degree courses the students must have passed class 12th examination. In addition, the candidates should have passed the examination in science stream having physics chemistry and mathematics subjects. Also, the exam must be passed from a recognized board. It is also desirable to have one of the subjects as computer science. 

Eligibility for B. C. A. in Information Technology: 

The students intending to pursue B. C. A. in Information Technology should have passed class 12th examination. Besides, the exam should have been passed in science or commerce stream. In addition, the science stream must have physics and chemistry as well as mathematics subject. 

Eligibility for B. Sc. in Information Technology: 

The students should have completed their class 12th examination in science stream having studied physics, chemistry and mathematics subjects. Also, the students should have passed from a recognized board. Also, a higher secondary certificate in computer science is also desirable. 

Eligibility for M. Tech. in Information Technology: 

The students intending to pursue M. Tech. in information technology must have completed graduation. Moreover, the graduation must be in B. Tech. or B. E. of the relevant branch. And the graduation degree must be obtained from a recognized university or institution. 

Eligibility for M. C. A. in Information Technology: 

The students should possess a bachelor’s degree of B. C. A. or B. Sc. in information technology or computer science. In addition, the students should have studied mathematics as a subject at 10+2 or the graduate level. 

Eligibility for M. Sc. in Information Technology: 

The students applying for M. Sc. in information technology should have a bachelor’s degree. Also, the graduation must be done in the relevant branch itself. Furthermore, they must also have studied mathematics as one of the subjects at 10+2 or graduate-level courses. 

Information Technology Entrance Exams  

There are several entrance examinations conducted at the state and national levels for the study of Information Technology. The entrance examinations are conducted for admitting students into information technology courses all over the country. Besides, both undergraduate and postgraduate level admissions are provided on the basis of these entrance examinations. Some of the popular entrance examinations for information technology courses in India are: 

1.      NIMCET:  

The National Institute of Management Master of computer applications Common Entrance Test is conducted for admissions to MCA courses. The admissions are offered on the basis of the ranks obtained in the entrance examinations. Also, the students are offered around eight hundred seats in eleven National Institutes of Technology all over India. Around twenty five thousand students attend the examination each year. Furthermore, the duration of the examination is two hours and it is conducted in twenty one cities in India 

2.      SAT India: 

Scholastic Assessment Test is one of the entrance examinations conducted for undergraduate admissions in Canada and US universities. The exam scores are also accepted for admissions in some institutions of UK and Australia. Besides, about twenty colleges in India also offer admissions on the basis of these scores. The entrance examination is conducted five times in a year. They are conducted in the months of March and May and August as well as October and December. Also, the duration of the examination is three hours. 

3.      TANCET: 

Tamil Nadu Common Entrance Test is the entrance examination for postgraduate admission in Tamil Nadu state. It’s a state level entrance examination conducted by Anna University. The scores of this examination are accepted by about two hundred colleges of the state. Approximately forty thousand students attend the examination each year. Moreover, the entrance examination consists of hundred multiple choice questions to be attempted in two hours. 

4.      CUCET: 

Central University Common Entrance Test refers to the entrance examination conducted by the fourteen central universities. Also, this entrance examination is conducted for offering admission in undergraduate as well as postgraduate and doctoral courses. The exam is conducted once in a year in hundred and twenty cities across the country. The duration of the examination is two hours. Besides, the candidates appearing for the entrance examination must have the minimum prescribed qualifications. 

5.      WBJEE JECA: 

West Bengal Joint Entrance Exam for Computer Application is conducted for admissions to the M. C. A. courses. T in addition, the entrance examination scores are accepted by the colleges in West Bengal state for postgraduate admissions. The candidates shall possess the minimum prescribed qualifications in order to appear for the examination. Also, it is a popular state level entrance examination. 

6.      IPU CET: 

Indra Prastha University Common Entrance Test is conducted for admissions to various undergraduate disciplines. The examination has a duration of three hours and is conducted once in a year. Furthermore, this national level entrance examination is conducted for admitting students into colleges under Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University. Therefore, the examination is conducted in nine cities all over the country. 

7.      DUET: 

Delhi University Entrance Test is undertaken by the Delhi University for offering admissions in undergraduate as well as postgraduate and doctoral courses. Also, the examination is conducted in eighteen cities across the country in which around three lakh students appear. The entrance examination is conducted once in a year and has a duration of two hours. In addition, the candidates must possess the minimum prescribed qualification in order to appear for the examination. 

8.      UPSEE: 

Uttar Pradesh Common Entrance Test is conducted for offering admissions in undergraduate and postgraduate degree courses. Besides, the students are admitted to institutions like Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam University as well as Madan Mohan Malviya University. Furthermore, the examination has a duration of 2-3 hours and the candidates appearing for the examination must possess the minimum qualification. 

9.      SET: 

Symbiosis Entrance Test is conducted by Symbiosis University for offering admissions to undergraduate courses. The exam has a duration of two hours and thirty minutes. Also, it is conducted once in a year and is a national level examination conducted in eighty cities across the country. Therefore, admissions in around seven hundred sixty seats are offered to the students through this entrance examination. 

10.  Karnataka PGCET: 

Karnataka Postgraduate Common Entrance Test is a state-level entrance examination conducted by the state government of Karnataka. The admissions to postgraduate courses in government as well as private and professional institutions are offered through this examination. Besides, the duration of the examination is a hundred and fifty minutes. In addition, the examination offers admissions in hundred and seventy-eight institutions in Karnataka. 

Top Information Technology Courses in India  

In India, information technology courses are available at undergraduate as well as postgraduate and doctoral levels. These courses are offered by several prominent institutions across the country. The undergraduate degrees available include B. E. as well as B. Tech. and B. Sc. along with B. C. A. degrees. The postgraduate courses are M. E. and M. Tech as well as M. Sc. along with M. C. A. Besides, doctoral degrees [Ph. D.] is also available in information technology disciplines in several Indian educational institutions. 

Top Information Technology Courses for Bachelors in India  

B E. [Bachelor of Engineering]: 

Bachelor of Engineering is a four year undergraduate program available in information technology discipline. The eligibility one must have in order to apply for the course is a minimum percentage of 55 in 10+2. Besides, the fee structure of the B. E. course in India ranges from Rs. 55, 000 to Rs. 4, 25, 000. Also, the admission to this course is offered on the basis of entrance scores as well as merit of the students. In addition, the scores obtained by the students in JEE mains as well as BITSAT and such examinations are considered for offering admissions to this degree course. This is one of the specialized engineering courses available in information technology discipline. Consequently, students having undergone this graduation get jobs in companies like Flipkart and TCS. Furthermore, the average salary offered is Rs. 15, 000- 20, 000 per month. 

List of Top B. E. Colleges in India 

College Name-Affiliated University-Cut Off 

Chandigarh College of Engineering and Technology-Panjab University- 

Aditya Engineering College-Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University- 

BITS- - 

IIT- - 

Jadavpur University- - 

RV College of Engineering-Visvesvaraya Technical University- 

BMS College of Engineering-Visvesvaraya Technical University- 

Average Fees for B. E.: Rs. 25, 000- Rs. 4, 25, 000 

Admission Criteria for B. E.: Entrance scores and merit 

Types of Jobs after B. E.: Database Administrator and Software Developer as well as IT System Manager. Also, Technical Trainer and Project leader. 

Average Placements after B. E.: Rs. 15, 000- Rs. 20, 000 per month. 

B Tech. [Bachelor of Technology]: 

Bachelor of Technology is a four year graduation program involving study of software development as well as information security. The admission to this course is carried out through entrance examinations like JEE Mains and WBJEE. Also, the students must have obtained minimum of 50% in class 12th and studied physics and chemistry along with mathematics. Besides, the fee structure of this course ranges from Rs. 30, 000- Rs. 8, 00, 000. Moreover, the students completing this course get placed in reputed IT companies and banks as well as hospitals. Hence, the salary package offered is between Rs. 3, 00, 000- Rs. 4, 50, 000 per annum. 

List of Top B. Tech. Colleges in India 

College Name  Affiliated University  Cut Off 
College of Engineering  Anna University   
Vellore Institute of Technology     
National Institute of Technology     
Jadavpur University     
SSN College of Engineering  Anna University   
Delhi Technical University     
Amity University     

Average Fees for B. Tech.: Rs. 30, 000- Rs. 8, 00, 000 

Admission Criteria for B. Tech.: Direct admission and entrance based admission. 

Types of Jobs after B. Tech.: IT analyst and Software Developer as well as System Engineer and Programmer. 

Average Placements after B. Tech.: Rs. 3, 00, 000- Rs. 4, 50, 000. 

B Sc. [Bachelor of Science]: 

Bachelor of science is a three year undergraduate course offering studies in software as well as databases and networking. In order to get admission to this degree course the students must have completed their class 12th in the required subjects. Moreover, the fee structure of the colleges in India offering B. Sc. IT is Rs. 90, 000- Rs. 4, 30, 000. Also, the students after completing this degree get placed as programmers and quality analysts. Furthermore, they also get jobs in the post of technology engineers and software developers. The average salary package offered ranges from Rs. 2, 00, 000- Rs. 4, 00, 000 per annum. 

List of Top B. Sc. Colleges in India 

College Name-Affiliated University-Cut Off 

St. Xavier’s College Mumbai-Mumbai University- 

Christ University- - 

Women’s Christian College-University of Madras- 

Government Arts College Coimbatore- - 

Lovely Professional University- - 

Jamia Hamdard University- - 

Annamalai University- - 

Average Fees for B. Sc.: Rs. 90, 000- Rs. 4, 30, 000 

Admission Criteria for B. Sc.: Entrance and Merit based. 

Types of Jobs after B. Sc.: Programmer and Quality Analyst as well as Technology Engineer and Software Developer. 

Average Placements after B. Sc.: Rs. 2, 00, 000- Rs. 4, 00, 000 per annum. 

B C. A. [Bachelor of Computer Application]: 

Bachelor of Computer Application is a three year undergraduate program providing education in computer application and software development. The students intending to pursue this degree course must have obtained 45% marks in class 12th examinations. Furthermore, the fee structure of this course ranges from Rs. 37, 500- Rs. 5, 00, 000. The students graduating in this degree are offered placements in companies like HP and Accenture. In addition, lucrative salary packages ranging from Rs. 4, 00, 000- Rs. 10, 00, 000 are offered to the students. Also, the job positions include software engineer and web designer as well as system analyst. 

List of Top B. C. A. Colleges in India 

College Name-Affiliated University-Cut Off 

SRM Institute of Science and Technology- - 

DAV College-Panjab University- 

St. Xavier’s College-Mumbai University- 

Amity University- - 

Delhi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya- - 

Christ University- - 

Vellore Institute of Technology- - 

Average Fees for B. C. A.: Rs. 37, 500- Rs. 5, 00, 000 

Admission Criteria for B. C. A.: Merit based and entrance based 

Types of Jobs after B. C. A.: Software Developer and Technical Analyst as well as System Administrator and Programmer. 

Average Placements after B. C. A.: Rs. 4, 00, 000- Rs. 10, 00, 000 

Top Information Technology Courses for Masters in India  

B E.: 

Master of Engineering is a two year postgraduate program available in information technology discipline. The eligibility one must have in order to apply for the course is a graduation in B. E. or B. Tech. Besides, the fee structure of the M. E. course in India ranges from Rs. 47, 000 to Rs. 2, 00, 000. The admission to this course is offered on the basis of GATE entrance scores. Subsequently, students having undergone this course get placed in software companies. They can also work in data mining and information security areas. Also, the average salary offered is Rs. 2, 00, 000- 5, 00, 000. 

List of Top M. E. Colleges in India 

College Name-Affiliated University-Cut Off/Merit Based 

Vidyalankar Institute of Technology- - 

Punjab University- - 

Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya- - 

Sipna College of Engineering and Technology- - 

Pandre Conceicao College of Engineering- - 

Bangalore University- - 

- - 

Average Fees for M. E.: Rs. 47, 000 to Rs. 2, 00, 000 

Admission Criteria for M. E.: Entrance based and counseling based. 

Types of Jobs after M. E.: Network Administrator and Information Technology Manager. Computer Support Specialist and Data Security Administrator. 

Average Placements after M. E.: Rs. 2, 00, 000- 5, 00, 000 

B Tech.: 

BTech. is a two year postgraduate program involving advanced study of computer based information system. The admission to this course is carried out through entrance examinations like GATE and TANCET. In addition, the students must have obtained B. E. or B. Tech. degree with minimum of 60% from a recognized university. The fee structure of this course ranges from Rs. 5, 000- Rs. 3, 00, 000. The students completing this course get placed as IT developers and computer programmers. Also, the salary package offered is between Rs. 3, 00, 000- Rs. 20, 00, 000 per annum. 

List of Top M. Tech. Colleges in India 

College Name  Affiliated University  Cut Off/Merit Based 
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur     
National Institute of Technology     
Delhi Technical University     
PSG College of Technology     
Birla Institute of Technology     
IIT Allahabad     
     

Average Fees for M. Tech.: Rs. 5, 000- Rs. 3, 00, 000 

Admission Criteria for M. Tech.: Entrance Based 

Types of Jobs after M. Tech.: Software Developer and IT specialist as well as quality analyst. Computer programmer and technical consultant as well as network engineer. 

Average Placements after M. Tech.: Rs. 3, 00, 000- Rs. 20, 00, 000 

B Sc.: 

Master of science is a two year postgraduate course offering studies in software development as well as data mining subjects. In order to get admission to this degree course the students must have completed their graduation in B. Sc. or B. E. or B. Tech. Besides, the graduation must be done in information technology discipline from a recognized university. The fee structure of the colleges in India offering B. Sc. IT is Rs. 80, 000- Rs. 3, 00, 000. In addition, the students after completing this degree get placed as programmers and data analysts. The average salary package offered ranges from Rs. 3, 00, 000- Rs. 8, 00, 000 per annum. 

List of Top M. Sc. Colleges in India 

College Name  Affiliated University  Cut Off/Merit Based 
Stella Maris College  University of Madras   
Ramnarain Ruia Autonomous College  Mumbai University   
Kishinchand Chellaram College  Mumbai University   
MOP Vaishnav College for Women  University of Madras   
Post Graduate Government College  Panjab University   
     
     

Average Fees for M. Sc.: Rs. 80, 000- Rs. 3, 00, 000 

Admission Criteria for M. Sc.: Entrance based as well as merit based. 

Types of Jobs after M. Sc.: Software Developer as well as Programmer and Data Analyst 

Average Placements after M. Sc.: Rs. 3, 00, 000- Rs. 8, 00, 000 

B C. A.: 

Master of Computer Application is a two year program providing education in the field of information technology. The students intending to pursue this course must have obtained graduation in B. C. A. or B. Sc. or B. Com. Furthermore, the students must have studied mathematics as one of the subjects in class 12th or graduation. The students graduating in this degree are offered placements in companies like Infosys and Microsoft. In addition, he job positions include that of app developer and business analyst as well as database engineer. Besides, they are also employed as ethical hacker and hardware engineer. 

List of Top M. C. A. Colleges in India 

College Name  Affiliated University  Cut Off/Merit Based 
Jawaharlal Nehru University     
Delhi University     
National Institute of Technology     
Vellore Institute of Technology     
Christ University     
Banaras Hindu University     
Chandigarh University     

Admission Criteria for M. C. A.: Merit based and entrance based 

Types of Jobs after M. C. A.: App Developer and Business Analyst as well as Database Engineer. Also, Hardware Engineer and Manual Tester as well as Web Designer. 

Ph.D. in Information Technology  

Ph. D. is a doctoral degree having a duration of three to five years. The degree involves intense and in depth research of the disciplines. In order to pursue this doctoral degree the student must have obtained a master’s degree in information technology discipline from a recognized university. Also, the admissions are undertaken on the basis of GATE as well as UGC NET entrance exam scores. The average fee structure for these research degrees range from Rs. 40, 000- Rs. 4, 00, 000. Upon completion, the students can be placed as market research analyst as well as business development manager. Furthermore, they can also find jobs as product manager and software consultant. Besides, the average salary package offered for these jobs range from Rs. 4, 00, 000- Rs. 20, 00, 000 per annum. 

Colleges/Universities offering PhD in Information Technology  

College Name  Affiliated University  Eligibility 
Indian Institute of Technology     
Indian Institute of Science     
Jawaharlal Nehru University     
Delhi University     
University of Hyderabad     
     
     

Average Fees for Ph.D. in Information Technology: Rs. 40, 000- Rs. 4, 00, 000. 

Admission Criteria for Ph.D. in Information Technology: Entrance and merit based 

Average Placements after Ph.D. in Information Technology: Rs. 4, 00, 000- Rs. 20, 00, 000 

What to do after Ph.D. in Information Technology?  

After completing the research program, students go on to become experts in the field of information technology. The students who are interested may become professors in prominent universities across the globe such as IIT and BITS. In addition, students upon completing their Ph. D. can also find jobs in reputed companies like Dell and Samsung and Apple. They can work as software developers in these tech giants. Also, hey can also opt for jobs in marketing companies like Amazon and Flipkart. Government sector companies as well as banks also offer job opportunities to doctoral degree holders. Besides, the average salary offered to these students range from Rs. 4, 00, 00- Rs. 20, 00, 000. The job roles available to Ph. D. holders include: 

  • Market Research Analyst 
  • Business Development Manager 
  • Competitive Intelligence Analyst 
  • Product Manager 
  • Software Consultant 
  • Management Consultant 
  • Quantitative Analyst 

Information Technology Job Roles & Levels in India  

Undergraduate, as well as postgraduate and doctoral degrees in information technology disciplines, offer tremendous job opportunities. Companies in modern times highly rely on the IT professionals for smooth functioning of their activities. The students having undergone studies from reputed institutions get placed in some of the top companies across the globe. The job roles assigned to them range from that of applications programmer to project manager. They also include jobs of database administrator and IT business analyst. 

Applications Programmer: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced  

Application programmers are the persons who write the computer software and electronic device codes. They are developers of application software who make sure that the applications are user friendly and free of errors. They also prepare manuals for the users making use of the application software. Therefore application programmers require a degree in information technology. Also, they must also be familiar with the programming language and have good communication skills. In India, the average salary package offered for these jobs range from Rs. 1. 23 lakh- Rs. 11 lakh. 

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs. 1. 23 LPA to 11 LPA 

Project Manager: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced  

An IT project manager is responsible for planning and executing the technology innovations in the organization. These innovations could be in the form of installing hardware and developing software. Besides, it comprises of managing the data and creating the cloud system. The innovations must be carried out keeping the client interest in mind. Therefore persons applying for this job require bachelors as well as master’s degree in information technology. The average salary package offered to the IT project managers range from Rs. 7 lakh- Rs. 20 lakh. 

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs.7 LPA to 20 LPA 

Database Administrator: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced  

Database Administrators are responsible for installing and administrating as well as monitoring and maintaining databases. The primary duty of the database administrator is to provide information to the database in a secure manner. They are also responsible for designing and developing methods of database management. Therefore persons applying for this job position require an undergraduate degree in information technology or computer science. In addition, the average salary package offered to these persons in India is between Rs. 1, 82, 000- Rs. 9, 48, 000. 

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs.1. 82 LPA to 9. 48 LPA 

IT Business Analyst: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced  

The role of an IT business analyst involves finding the client requirements and communicating them to the software developer. In addition the job involves interacting with clients as well as business as well as finance team. This interaction is important for drawing a plan in order to help the teams and project managers achieve their targets. Therefore persons intending to apply for this job must possess a computer science or information technology degree. The average salary package of the IT business analysts range from Rs. 3, 00, 000- Rs. 11, 00, 000. 

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs.3 LPA to 11 LPA 

Software Trainer: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced  

Software trainers are the persons having knowledge of software applications and programs related to a company or job. The trainer is supposed to communicate the usage and advantages of the software to the users. Besides, they provide the requisite training to the employees and clients and thus enable them to become well versed in using the software applications. Therefore, a software trainer must possess an undergraduate degree in information technology or associated field. The average salary package of software trainers ranges from Rs. 1. 24 lakh to Rs. 8 lakh 

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs. 1. 24 LPA to 8 LPA 

Frequently Asked Questions About Information Technology in India  

Q1 What do you mean by the term Information Technology?  

  • The term information technology refers to the creation as well as processing and storage along with exchange of electronic data using computers. The primary usage of information technology is in the field of businesses. Information technology consists of the use of computer software and hardware as well as equipment used by information technology professionals. Human beings have stored and communicated data and information since 3000 BC. Furthermore, this was the time around which writing was developed in Mesopotamia by Sumerians. The article published in the year of 1958 by the Harvard Business Review introduced the term ‘Information Technology in its present day meaning. 
  • Harold J Leavittt as well as Thomas L Whisler gave the name information technology to the new technology and defined it as consisting of processing techniques. Besides, it also found to include application of mathematical as well as statistical methods for decision making and high order thinking. Usually the term information technology said to include computers as well as computer systems. But in reality it includes communication technologies like telephones as well as televisions used for transmitting information. 
  • The development of information technology over the years can be categorized into four periods or phases. Also, this categorization is based upon the technologies used for storing as well as processing. The first phase is known as the pre mechanical stage of development which began in 3000 BC and lasted till 1450 AD. The second phase of development called the mechanical phase begun in 1450 and lasted till 1840. The third phase of development called electromechanical started in 1840 and continued till 1940. The final stage of the categorization called the electronic phase began in 1940 and continues till date. 

Q2 What is the historical significance of Information Technology?  

  • Human beings have used devices for computation and calculation for a thousand years. It began from the tally system used in ancient times. Since BC first century, a mechanical computer using analog mechanism known as Antikythera mechanism used. This might have the earliest known geared mechanism. Consequently, in the sixteenth century Europe similar geared devices appeared. In the year of 1645 a mechanical calculator was developed having the ability to perform basic arithmetic operations. 
  • It was in the 1940s that electronic computers entered the picture. The first computer capable of performing programs and one of the first complete machines for computing was Zues Z3. Besides, this electromechanical device developed in the year of 1941. Also, it during the period of second world war that the first electronic computer was developed by Colossus. This digital computer had developed with the purpose of decoding messages from Germans. However, it was unable to store programs in its memory and thus Manchester Baby was developed in 1948. Having the ability to store programs Manchester Baby became the first electronic modern digital computer of its kind. 
  • Bell laboratories in the 1940s developed transistors enabling the designing of computers consuming less power. In addition, Ferranti Mark I was the first stored program computer available in the commercial market. It had four thousand valves and consumed around twenty five kilowatts of power. Comparing it with the transistor based computer, the later consumed only hundred and fifty watts of power. 
  • There were other developments and inventions based on the technology using semiconductors. Besides, there were several other inventions which gradually led to the development of personal computers in 1970s. Consequently, the information and communication technology emerged in the 1970s. 

Q3 What are the different types of Information Technology services and systems?  

  • Various businesses in the modern times require various kind of information technology as well as information technology systems. There are a number of information technology types which undertake several activities of the business organizations. Furthermore, the technical software and hardware using information technology provide help in decision making and problem solving. It also includes methods and techniques of risk management and dealing with operations. Therefore, the information technology discipline said to compromise of algorithms and analytics. It also includes management information system and risk management system along with decision support system. The various categories of information technology disciplines given below: 
  • Algorithms and Analytics: Algorithms consist of the procedures involved in problem solving as well as decision making. Analytics on the other hand refers to discovering information which is meaningful, from the data. Analytics software used for a particular data type like web analytics and such others. Certain general tools of analytics also offered as business software. 
  • Hardware and Software: The information technology services are available in the form of different hardware and software systems. Also, all the businesses these days require hardware in the form of laptops, computers and workstations. Information Technology helps the hardware systems reliable and secure. Therefore, no valuable data or confidential information of the business is lost. Information technology software helps the business keep their systems and licenses up to date. Also, it reduces the cost and improves the efficiency of computer software employed by the companies. Besides, the information technology software primarily used is software asset management. 

Cloud Computing: 

  • Information technology services offer cloud computing facilities to the businesses. They offer security to confidential data including client information and other such data. In addition, the information technology helps in getting the cloud applications and managing it. They also provide security to the cloud from external threats and attacks. Therefore, information technology this helps the organization to focus on their main work and not distracted in managing the cloud applications. 
  • Cyber Security: With the advent of technology, cyber security has gained popularity. The information technology services helps the businesses and their clients safe from cyber attacks. Furthermore, he malwares and other such forms of intrusions into the data can avoided by availing the IT services. Subsequently, the information technology services help the businesses not only to meet their present needs but also secure their future. 
  • Risk Management System: The term risk management software includes those software which undertake the governance of risk. Besides, these software look after the control as well as analysis processes of the business. Also, the risk management software are often used by a particular industry and limited to a type of risk. These software help in the identification of risk and elimination of the identified risk. 

Decision Support System: 

This system of information technology helps the organization in decision making. It does so by collecting and gathering information required in the decision making process. Moreover, the decision support system manages large and complex information. It converts the complex information into simple and understandable data. Information can also be added or eliminated from the system. Besides, this helps the managers and other such persons in arriving at the decisions easily and with precision. 

Office Automation System and Knowledge Management System: 

Office automation system comprises of the tools and techniques for performing managerial as well as clerical functions. The works such as printing of documents and mailing and creating reports can done using OAS. It can also combined with email and word applications to ensure the availability of all data in a single place. To summarize, knowledge management system helps in the enhancement of knowledge. This is done by providing documents for training employees and answering customer queries. This system used by employees as well as customers and management. Therefore, it a system for knowledge sharing and knowledge enhancement. 

Q4 What is the eligibility criteria for Information Technology in India?  

  • The eligibility criteria for information technology courses is set by the All India Council for Technical Education AICTE. The eligibility criteria this set by the council is fifty percentage marks for students from general category. Furthermore, the students belonging to the reserved category should have obtained minimum forty five percentage marks. Also, the private institutions have a separate eligibility criteria which requires the students to have obtained pass percentage only. The eligibility criteria for the different information technology courses are as follows: 
  • Eligibility for B. Tech./ B. E. courses in Information Technology: In order to apply for the B. Tech., B. E. degree courses the students must have passed class 12th examination. In addition, the candidates should have passed the examination in science stream having physics chemistry and mathematics subjects. Also, the exam must be passed from a recognized board. It is also desirable to have one of the subjects as computer science. 
  • Eligibility for B. C. A. in Information Technology: The students intending to pursue B. C. A. in Information Technology should have passed class 12th examination. Besides, the exam should have been passed in science or commerce stream. In addition, the science stream must have physics and chemistry as well as mathematics subject. 
  • Eligibility for B. Sc. in Information Technology: The students should have completed their class 12th examination in science stream having studied physics, chemistry and mathematics subjects. Also, the students should have passed from a recognized board. Also, a higher secondary certificate in computer science is also desirable. 
  • Eligibility for M. Tech. in Information Technology: The students intending to pursue M. Tech. in information technology must have completed graduation. Moreover, the graduation must be in B. Tech. or B. E. of the relevant branch. 

Q5 What are the different entrance examinations in India, conducted for offering admissions to Information Technology courses?  

  • There several entrance examinations conducted at the state and national levels for the study of Information Technology. The entrance examinations conducted for admitting students into information technology courses all over the country. Both undergraduate and postgraduate level admissions are provided on the basis of these entrance examinations. Some of the popular entrance examinations for information technology courses in India are: 

NIMCET: 

The National Institute of Management Master of computer applications Common Entrance Test conducted for admissions to MCA courses. In addition, the admissions offered on the basis of the ranks obtained in the entrance examinations. Also, the students offered around eight hundred seats in eleven National Institutes of Technology all over India. Around twenty-five thousand students attend the examination each year. Furthermore, the duration of the examination two hours and it conducted in twenty-one cities in India. 

SAT India: 

Scholastic Assessment Test one of the entrance examinations conducted for undergraduate admissions in Canada and US universities. The exam scores also accepted for admissions in some institutions of UK and Australia. About twenty colleges in India also offer admissions on the basis of these scores. Therefore, the entrance examination conducted five times a year. They conducted in the months of March and May and August as well as October and December. Besides, the duration of the examination three hours. 

TANCET: 

Tamil Nadu Common Entrance Test is the entrance examination for postgraduate admission in Tamil Nadu state. Also, its a state-level entrance examination conducted by Anna University. Furthermore, the scores of this examination accepted by about two hundred colleges of the state. Approximately forty thousand students attend the examination each year. The entrance examination consists of hundred multiple-choice questions to attempted in two hours. 

CUCET: 

Central University Common Entrance Test refers to the entrance examination conducted by the fourteen central universities. Also, this entrance examination conducted for offering admission in undergraduate as well as postgraduate and doctoral courses. The exam conducted once in a year in hundred and twenty cities across the country. The duration of the examination is two hours. Additionally, the candidates appearing for the entrance examination must have the minimum prescribed qualifications. 

WBJEE JECA: 

West Bengal Joint Entrance Exam for Computer Application conducted for admissions to the M. C. A. courses. Therefore, entrance examination scores accepted by the colleges in West Bengal state for postgraduate admissions. The candidates shall possess the minimum prescribed qualifications in order to appear for the examination. Hence, it is a popular state level entrance examination. 

IPU CET: 

Indra Prastha University Common Entrance Test conducted for admissions to various undergraduate disciplines. Besides, the examination has a duration of three hours and conducted once in a year. Furthermore, this national level entrance examination conducted for admitting students into colleges under Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University. The examination is conducted in nine cities all over the country. 

DUET: 

Delhi University Entrance Test undertaken by the Delhi University for offering admissions in undergraduate as well as postgraduate and doctoral courses. Also, the examination conducted in eighteen cities across the country in which around three lakh students appear. The entrance examination conducted once in a year and has a duration of two hours. Furthermore, the candidates must possess the minimum prescribed qualification in order to appear for the examination. 

UPSEE: 

Uttar Pradesh Common Entrance Test conducted for offering admissions in undergraduate and postgraduate degree courses. Besides, the students admitted to institutions like Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam University as well as Madan Mohan Malviya University. In addition, the examination has a duration of 2-3 hours and the candidates appearing for the examination must possess the minimum qualification. 

SET: 

Symbiosis Entrance Test conducted by the Symbiosis University for offering admissions to undergraduate courses. Also, the exam has a duration of two hours and thirty minutes. It conducted once in a year and a national level examination conducted in eighty cities across the country. Furthermore, admissions in around seven hundred sixty seats offered to the students through this entrance examination. 

Karnataka PGCET: 

Karnataka Postgraduate Common Entrance Test a state level entrance examination conducted by the state government of Karnataka. Also, the admissions to postgraduate courses in government as well as private and professional institutions offered through this examination. Besides, the duration of the examination is hundred and fifty minutes. Therefore, examination offers admissions in hundred and seventy eight institutions in Karnataka. 

Q6 What are the different undergraduate courses available in information technology discipline?  

B E.: 

Bachelor of Engineering is a four year undergraduate program available in information technology discipline. The eligibility one must have in order to apply for the course is a minimum percentage of 55 in 10+2. Additionally, the fee structure of the B. E. course in India ranges from Rs. 55, 000 to Rs. 4, 25, 000. The admission to this course offered on the basis of entrance scores as well as merit of the students. Besides, the scores obtained by the students in JEE mains as well as BITSAT and such examinations considered for offering admissions to this degree course. Also, this is one of the specialized engineering courses available in information technology discipline. In addition, students having undergone this graduation get jobs in companies like Flipkart and TCS. The average salary offered is Rs. 15, 000- 20, 000 per month. 

B Tech.: 

Bachelor of Technology is a four year graduation program involving study of software development as well as information security. Furthermore, the admission to this course carried out through entrance examinations like JEE Mains and WBJEE. The students must have obtained minimum of 50% in class 12th and studied physics and chemistry along with mathematics. The fee structure of this course ranges from Rs. 30, 000- Rs. 8, 00, 000. Besides, the students completing this course placed in reputed IT companies and banks as well as hospitals. Moreover, the salary package offered is between Rs. 3, 00, 000- Rs. 4, 50, 000 per annum. 

BSc.: 

Bachelor of science is a three year undergraduate course offering studies in software as well as databases and networking. In order to get admission to this degree course the students must have completed their class 12th in the required subjects. Besides, the fee structure of the colleges in India offering B. Sc. IT is Rs. 90, 000- Rs. 4, 30, 000. The students after completing this degree placed as programmers and quality analysts. Also, they also get jobs in the post of technology engineers and software developers. The average salary package offered ranges from Rs. 2, 00, 000- Rs. 4, 00, 000 per annum. 

B C. A.: 

Bachelor of Computer Application is a three year undergraduate program providing education in computer application and software development. In addition, the students intending to pursue this degree course must have obtained 45% marks in class 12th examinations. Also, the fee structure of this course ranges from Rs. 37, 500- Rs. 5, 00, 000. The students graduating in this degree offered placements in companies like HP and Accenture. Lucrative salary packages ranging from Rs. 4, 00, 000- Rs. 10, 00, 000 are offered to the students. Therefore job positions include software engineer and web designer as well as system analyst. 

Q7 What are the opportunities available to Information Technology Ph. D. holders in India? 

  • After completing the research program, students go on to become experts in the field of information technology. The students who interested may become professors in prominent universities across the globe such as IIT and BITS. Students upon completing their Ph. D. can also find jobs in reputed companies like Dell and Samsung and Apple. In addition, they can work as software developers in these tech giants. They can also opt for jobs in marketing companies like Amazon and Flipkart. Besides, government sector companies as well as banks also offer job opportunities to doctoral degree holders. The average salary offered to these students range from Rs. 4, 00, 00- Rs. 20, 00, 000. The job roles available to Ph. D. holders include: 
  • Market Research Analyst 
  • Business Development Manager 
  • Competitive Intelligence Analyst 
  • Product Manager 
  • Software Consultant 
  • Management Consultant 
  • Quantitative Analyst 
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List of Universities offering Information Technology
List of Universities