The technique of building an integrated circuit by merging several millions of MOS transistors onto a single chip is known as a very large-scale integration (VLSI). When MOS integrated circuit chips became widely used in the 1970s, semiconductors, as well as telecommunication technologies, could be developed. VLSI devices are also used in the microprocessor as well as memory chips.

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Prior to the development of VLSI technology, the integrated circuit could only perform a restricted range of functions. A CPU and ROM as well as RAM, and other glue logic may also be found in an electronic circuit. VLSI becomes significant because it allows IC designers to combine all of these functions into a single chip.

VLSI or very-large-scale integration is the process of putting millions of MOS or Metal Oxide Silicon transistors on a single chip to form an integrated circuit (IC). When MOS (Metal Oxide Silicon transistor) integrated circuit chips became widely used in the 1970s, VLSI was born. Thus, allowing compound semiconductor and communications technologies to be used skillfully. VLSI Very Large- Scale Integration devices are used in the microprocessor as well as memory chips. Prior to the introduction of VLSI technology, most ICs could only execute a limited number of tasks.

Integrated circuits (ICs) are found in a wide range of electrical devices. Our cellphone also comprises of integrated circuits. In building and commerce, an IC is a circuit in which all or some of the circuit elements are linked inseparably and integrated electrically. Prior to the introduction of VLSI, ICs were significantly larger than they are now. Consequently, designers can now fit millions of transistors and other components on a single chip because of VLSI.

What is VLSI Design?

The technique of producing an integrated circuit by merging several transistors into one single chip is known as very large-scale integration or VLSI. When complicated semiconductor and communication techniques were being invented in the 1970s, VLSI was born.  An example of a VLSI device is a microprocessor. Prior to the development of VLSI, most of the integrated circuits could only perform a restricted range of functions. A CPU and ROM as well as RAM along with other glue logic are components of an electronic circuit. VLSI gained importance because it allows IC designers to combine all of these components into a single chip. The electronics sector has grown at a breakneck pace in recent decades. This is due to the fast developments in system design applications and large-scale integration technologies.

The number of integrated circuits being used in high-performance computing and controls along with telecommunications and image as well as video processing. And consumer electronics has been rapidly increasing since the introduction of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) designs. Furthermore, the end-users benefit from today’s cutting-edge technologies like high-resolution low bit rate video as well as cellular communications. This is because they offer a vast array of applications and processing power and also provide portability. Therefore, this pattern is predicted to continue in the coming years.

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The technique or process by which thousands of transistors are embedded or integrated onto a single semiconductor microchip is known as very large-scale integration. VLSI technology was first developed in late 1970. About the same time as advanced level computer processor microchips were being developed. Microprocessors and microcontrollers are two among the most common types of VLSI devices. VLSI is a type of integrated circuit that has several devices integrated on a single chip. Moreover, the word, like other scale integration based classifications on the basis of a number of gates and transistors per IC, originated in the 1970s.

The advancements in large scale integration technologies are also responsible for the electronics industry’s extraordinary growth. Besides, the opportunities for ICs in control applications and telecommunications and high-performance computing has grown tremendously with the emergence of VLSI designs. Due to VLSI technology, today’s technologies such as smartphones and cell communications are portable, have processing capacity and provide access to applications. With a rise in demand, the future projection for this trend indicates a quick growth.

History of VLSI Design

The transistor’s origins can be traced back to the 1920s when various inventors attempted to control current through solid-state diodes and by converting them into triodes. The creation of radar detectors using crystals of silicon and germanium led to advancements in manufacture. Furthermore, this technique emerged successfully after World War II. Thereafter, scientists who had previously worked on radar returned to developing solid-state devices. The first transistor was invented in 1947 at Bell Labs and the field of electronics transitioned from vacuum tubes to solid-state devices.

Equipped with the little transistors in hand the electrical engineers in the 1950s realized they could build significantly more complex circuits. However, when circuit complexity increased, problematic issues occurred as well. The circuit size was one of these issues. The speed of a complex circuit, such as a computer, was also critical. Moreover, the cables that connect the components had to belong if the components are large. Furthermore, the electric signals took a long time to travel across the circuit, causing the computer to slow down.

By constructing all of these components as well as the chip out of the same monolithic block of semiconductor material, Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce solved this difficulty. Hence, the problem was solved with the development of the integrated circuit. Consequently, the manufacturing process could be mechanized and smaller circuits could be made. This subsequently sparked the idea of integration of all components on a single crystal silicon wafer. Which in result, lead to the development of small-scale integration SSI in the early 1960 and medium-scale integration MSI in the late 60s. The first commercial MOS integrated circuit was introduced by General Microelectronics in the year of 1964.

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The use of an MOS integrated circuit also enabled the integration of more than ten thousand transistors in a single chip in the early 1970s. In the 1970s and 1980s, this cleared the door for VLSI, which had tens and thousands of these MOS transistors on one single chip. Later the number of transistors became hundreds of thousands and then millions, now it is in billions.

Each of the original semiconductor chips contained two transistors. As the technology progressed more and more transistors added. As a result, more individual functions as well as systems merged time and again. The original integrated circuits contained only a few components, possibly ten diodes and transistors as well as capacitors. Which allowed one or more logic gates to be built on a single device called small scale integration SSI. It was then improved to produce devices having a hundred logic gates called medium-scale integration MSI. Large-scale integration LSI or systems with at least a thousand logic gates resulted from further advancements during later years. Today’s microprocessors have millions of logic gates as well as individual transistors in billions thus significantly surpassing this milestone.

There was once a push to label and assess different degrees of large-scale integration above VLSI. For this, the terms such as ultra-large-scale integration ULSI were also used. However, because of the availability of large numbers of gates as well as transistors on ordinary devices, such subtle distinctions were no longer relevant. Hence, the terms implying higher integration levels than that of VLSI were not widely used. Billion transistor processors first became available for commercial purposes in the year of 2008.

Types of VLSI Design

To reap the benefits of integration, system designers need a quick technique of implementation using silicon. Designing silicon circuits was a highly specialized task in the 1970s. It also necessitated tight collaboration between the circuit designer and the process engineer. Laying out and debugging a sophisticated circuit with one lakh transistors might take ten years. Therefore, in recent years, research has been focused on developing computer-based designs. Also resulting in the emergence of a variety of design styles. Moreover, the style chosen for a particular application may be influenced by a variety of local customs and habits.

Full Custom Design

Particularly complicated circuits like microprocessors that will be a very high-volume product (more than 100,000 per annum) must make efficient use of every square millimetre of silicon. This is required to obtain maximum yield and thus minimize cost. Hence, full custom design is the term for this type of design. The creation of a specification may appear to be a simple operation, but depending on the application, producing an unambiguous explanation of the requirements might be challenging.

This is further worsened because of the lack of a universal language that can be used to precisely specify a system at this level. In an ideal world, a specification could be submitted to a CAD system that could synthesize the design without the need for human interaction. Such technologies are being developed presently, but it will be a long time before they become a reality. Though silicon compilers are commercially accessible for a few restricted sets of applications but they are available at a huge cost.

System Representation

The hierarchical method at different levels is usually evolutionary in nature. The system is first characterized in terms of the behavior and functionality that it must have. Simultaneously, other specific characteristics of the required performance may be defined, such as the maximum power consumption. Furthermore, the initial design is always created and tested against the requirements that have already been established. And when these specifications aren’t met, the design must be changed and improved. After the functionality has been determined, an architecture may be created to outline the design structure.

This can then be separated into modules, which can further be subdivided into a description at gate level. Finally, this structural description is transformed into a geometrical layout that contains all of the fabrication details. The three domains of behavior and structure and geometrical layout distinguish the types of activity required in the design process. And they lead to the development of a graphical method for describing the design flow of the digital ICs. This is also known as the Y-chart, which D Gajski introduced for the first time. Though the process is depicted as a linear one there are several iterations not only to and from and in between neighboring steps but also between widely distant steps on occasions.

Semi- Custom Design

Different types of design styles have been developed to reduce the time taken for creating designs. And still allowing the systems’ designer to figure out the silicon structure for a specific application with a reasonable amount of freedom. The layout production activity consumes the maximum amount of time. So there has been a strong desire to achieve the desired result using lesser amount of time. This is known as semi custom design which unlike full custom design gives the designer complete creative control. Standard cells and gate arrays are the two types of semi custom designs.

Gate Arrays

When compared to full bespoke design, the gate array also known as sea of gates and uncommitted logic array ULA. Or master slice design styles do not require the system designer to have a deep knowledge of the devices and circuits. In theory, the semiconductor manufacturer provides a matrix of cells to the designer, who then customizes them.

The customization is carried out electronically in the recent contemporary Field Programmable Gate Array or FPGA e.g. Xilinx or Altera supplied arrays. Moreover, this is done by the programming of RAM cells the output of which controls the pass transistors and MOS gates. I/O buffers & configurable logic blocks (CLBs) arrays are included in these cells. Furthermore, they are typically made up of programmable multiplexers and logic gates & a single or multiple bistable devices.

Standard Cells

By removing the limitation of requiring a predetermined structure, standard cells allow the designer to use the silicon available in a better way. Cells are made up of low functioning building pieces. They can be retrieved from a combination of parts and combined to make larger building blocks and even the entire system. Each of the types can have numerous implementations for giving varying drive capacities depending on the demands of the designer. The manufacturer will characterize each cell in terms of time delay vs. load capacitance and other metrics. This technique is more expensive to create than gate arrays since it requires an entire mask set for developing the target technology.

CAD

The quality & features of the CAD has a significant impact on the time taken for creating a design. Also, the need for reducing design time has led to the development of systems which can design in months what would have taken years.  Some of the CAD tools are used in each of these design methods. A good example is logic simulation. Even for a simple circuit of thousand gates, this can be highly time-consuming in terms of computation. However, it was realized a few years ago and now several CAD companies can provide special-purpose hardware to increase the speed and decrease the bottleneck in designing. This reflects the fast-paced nature of the development of CAD tools. Some believe that suitable CAD facilities and the necessary processing power are not yet accessible to explore the fast-changing technology.

Scope of VLSI Design in India

VLSI engineers have a bright future because the world is filled with electronic devices such as microcontrollers and microprocessors, and so on. VLSI engineers are needed for designing these chips and integrated circuits. Moreover, the digital world is made up of a variety of electronic equipment including automatic devices and gadgets and so on. Also, all of these devices are controlled by a chip or integrated circuit. As a result, a large number of VLSI engineers are needed to design these chips.

A very large-scale integrated circuit is commonly referred to and known as VLSI. It is known to all that millions of transistors make up an integrated circuit. Therefore, this position is perfect for those having a strong background in engineering and electronics. Because EE and EC students will have a thorough understanding of electronics, this position is primarily performed by electronics & communication engineers. Electrical & electronics engineers are also in demand. Hence, upon pursuing VLSI design courses a person can land himself in some of the best job roles combined with lucrative salary packages. Some of the job roles available in this discipline along with their scope are:

VLSI Application Engineers –

This position is suitable for those persons who enjoy working with clients and want to work in R&D. Furthermore, engineers in this position need to travel extensively and consider the needs of customers on the basis of the application. This field is also an excellent fit for you if you have strong communication skills and enjoy interacting with people. Additionally, persons employed in these posts also need to have a good knowledge of client needs.

VLSI Chip Design Engineers —

This field is suitable for people who aren’t interested in interaction with others and travelling. Moreover, the sector requires the engineer to use tools to design and develop chips. However, you must be a strong communicator in order to share ideas with your coworkers. FPGA (Discipline programmable gate arrays) and ASIC (Application-specific integrated circuit design) are some of their subdomains. It also includes AMS (Analog mixed-signal design) and DFT (Design for the test) along with PCB (Printed circuit board).

VLSI Verification Engineers –

The verification engineer’s job is to check the chips when their design is finished. The verification engineers must also determine whether or not the chip is functioning properly. They must also be familiar with coding languages including Verilog and VHDL. If you enjoy coding then this can be chosen. Product validation and hardware-software verification and front-end verification are all subcategories of verification engineers’ work.

Engineers for CAD –

This position is ideal for persons who enjoy working with tools. Engineers’ task basically involves managing EDA tools. They should also be aware of the most recent software upgrade. Engineers must also be aware of the tools that are employed in each operation. Furthermore, they need to know everything about the EDA software.

VLSI Engineers for Sales —

Once the final product is made the engineers in charge of sales & marketing are responsible and in charge of selling the chips in the market. This job is suitable for you if you are skilled at dealing with people and communicating and performing selling & marketing activities.

Eligibility Criteria for VLSI Design in India

The term VLSI design expands as Very Large-Scale Integration and it is used for making integrated circuits. This is generally done by putting together millions of metal oxide transistors of silicon into a single chip. VLSI is said to have been developed in the 1970s. VLSI design has also been increasingly employed in a variety of products. These include memory cards and cell phones, also set-top boxes. Besides, this design is used to perform a variety of functions by permitting the usage of millions of transistors on a solo chip. VLSI is thus an evolutionary invention in the realm of electronics because it allows designers to develop devices without having to worry about their size or production costs.

VLSI design technology course is available for post-graduate students. The discipline is also available in the form of the following varieties of programs, including –

  • VLSI Design & Technology [M. Tech]
  • VLSI Design [M Tech]
  • VLSI Design [PG Diploma]
  • VLSI Design [PG Certificate]
  • Modular Course
  • M E in VLSI Design
  • B Sc in VLSI Design & Technology

Eligibility Criteria for Postgraduate Education-

  • Students who have completed B. E. or B. Tech. in IT Engineering or Electronics Engineering or Computer Science Engineering or IC Engineering, or Electrical Engineering can apply for admission to VLSI design post graduate course.
  • During their bachelor’s degree, candidates must have achieved a minimum aggregate score of 55 percent.

Eligibility Criteria for Doctoral degree-

  • Those intending to pursue the doctoral degree must hold a master’s degree with an average of fifty five percent marks.
  • A total 50% mark is required by the students belonging to OBC & SC/ST categories who wish to pursue this research degree.
  • Only candidates under the age of 30 are eligible to apply for the JRF Junior Research Fellowship.

VLSI Design Entrance Exams

VLSI design is one of the most important components of the electronic industry. Almost all the electronic goods we use in our every day life such as LCD monitors and TV. And smartphones & laptops are created using the integrated circuit design. This type of designing technique has made the designers’ jobs easier. VLSI design is said to be best suited for the electronic engineers who are interested in electronics design. This is because they have a strong mathematical background and analytical understanding.

There are several entrance examinations which are conducted for admissions in the VLSI design disciplines. Entrance examinations are also conducted for admissions to doctoral or research degrees. The post graduate entrance examinations consist of the following:

1.      GATE:

Graduate Aptitude Test in learning is an entrance examination conducted at the national level. Furthermore, this examination is administered online for admission to postgraduate programs at colleges such as IISC and IITs. Additionally, the test is of objective type and usually takes place in February.

2.      IPU CET:

Indraprastha University Entrance Exam is also an entrance examination conducted at the national level. Besides, this entrance examination is conducted by the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University for admission to postgraduate degrees. In addition, the examination is held in the month of September, also the exam is held once a year.

3.      BITSAT:

Birla Institute of Technology and Science Admissions Test is another entrance examination conducted at national level. This exam is conducted by Birla Institute of Technology and Science. This examination also offers admission in postgraduate degrees in VLSI design. It is usually held online between the months of April and September.

Ph. D. is a doctoral program having a duration of five years. It is for the students of VLSI Design engineering who are interested in conducting research in chip design and semiconductor technologies. The entrance examinations conducted for offering admissions to these courses include:

1.      CSIR UGC NET:

National Eligibility Test is a test conducted at national level. It is one of the tests that determines whether or not a person is eligible to pursue the doctoral degrees. Furthermore, this entrance examination is conducted by the National Testing Agency NTA in the month of June every year. Additionally, Junior Research Fellowships JRF are offered to eligible Indian candidates who pass the test.

2.      UGC NET:

National Eligibility Test — The National Testing Agency NTA conducts the UGC NET entrance examination. And the examination is conducted on an all-India basis to find qualified applicants. The exam is also for Assistant Professor jobs or admissions in vacant Junior Research Fellowship seats.

Top VLSI Design Courses in India

Students intending to pursue VLSI design degree can apply for diploma as well as undergraduate and postgraduate degrees. Also, there are several prominent institutions in India offering these degrees. Furthermore, the postgraduate degrees of B. E. and B. Tech. in VLSI design discipline are detailed below. These degrees are availed by numerous students across the country each year. It is a popular discipline of study offering numerous career and employment opportunities. The various courses and degrees available in this discipline include:

  • VLSI Design & Technology [M Tech], VLSI Design [M Tech], VLSI Design [PG Diploma], VLSI Design [PG Certificate], Modular Course, BE in VLSI Design.

Top VLSI Design Courses for Masters in India

  1. E.

  1. E. or Master of Engineering in Very Large-Scale Integration Design is a two-year postgraduate program. This degree falls under the electronics engineering domain and focuses on VLSI based circuit design. Students applying for M. E. VLSI design degree require a minimum of fifty percent marks in bachelor’s degree. The degree can be in any of the disciplines including Electronics and Communication Engineering or Information Technology or Computer Science or Instrumentation or any relevant discipline at the undergraduate level.

In India, the cost of this education ranges from Rs. 50,000 to Rs. 2, 00, 000, depending on the type of university (private or government or deemed). Several government and private institutions offer this postgraduate degree. Some of the best institutions offering M. E VLSI Design courses include Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology Hyderabad and Dr. D.Y. Patil College of Engineering of Pune. Also, Madras Institute of Technology of Chennai. The admissions in these institutions are based on merit or scores obtained in the entrance examinations such as GATE or TANCET.

The Karnataka PGCET is the sole entrance test conducted at state level for M. E. VLSI Design admissions. Students studying this course will also have the opportunity to gain skills specific to a domain and practical knowledge. Algorithm and system architecture and physical designs are included in the course study. Low power design strategies and mixed mode design methodologies are also covered throughout the course. After earning the M. E. in VLSI Design, students can go for an M. Phil. or Ph.D. degree in this field. They can also work as Project Designer and Networking Engineer and Design Engineer. The typical annual remuneration for these jobs range from Rs. 1.5 to 5 lakhs.

List of Top M. E. Colleges in India

College Name

Affiliated University

Cut Off/Merit Based

Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology Hyderabad

 Merit

Dr. D Y Patil College of Engineering Pune

 Merit

G H Raisoni College of Engineering & Management Pune

 Merit

GRM Institute of Technology Srikakulam

 Merit

Madras Institute of Technology Chennai

 Merit

Greater Noida Institute of Technology Uttar Pradesh

 Merit

Balaji Institute of Engineering and Technology Chennai

 Merit

Average Fees for M. E.: Rs. 50, 000- Rs. 4, 00, 000

Admission Criteria for M. E: Merit based and entrance based.

Types of Jobs after M. E.: Design Engineer and Technical Lead and Testing Engineer as well as Project Designer.

Average Placements after M. E.: Rs. 1, 00, 000- Rs. 5, 00, 000.

M Tech –

M Tech or Master of Technology is a master’s program available in VLSI Design discipline. The course is a two year postgraduation program broken into four six month semesters. The course is designed to help students learn how to design circuits and semiconductor devices. They also help in understanding how the systems are to be incorporated by using the embedded components. Additionally, the students must have obtained at least fifty percent marks in a B. E. or B. Tech or equivalent degree from a recognized university to be eligible for the course.

MTech VLSI Design admission is primarily based on merit. But a few prestigious universities and colleges hold entrance examinations for offering admission to this degree program. India Institute of Technology Delhi and Indian Institute of Technology Mumbai and Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati also offer this course. Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur & Indian Institute of Technology Chennai are some of the prominent colleges that offer this course.

An M Tech course costs somewhere between INR 2 and INR 7 lakhs per year, this fee might vary from institute to institute. Students interested in pursuing an M Tech in VLSI Design study the subjects including analogue or mixed mode design. They also study VLSI design concepts and hardware description languages and VLSI technology. Furthermore, semiconductor devices VLSI circuits and VLSI design LAB along with a variety of other topics are covered.

List of Top M Tech Colleges in India

College Name

Affiliated University

Cut Off/Merit Based

SRM University Chennai Tamil Nadu

 Merit

Indian Institute of Science Bangalore

 Merit

IIT  Mumbai

 Merit

IIT Delhi

 Merit

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

 Merit

Average Fees for M Tech

Rs. 2, 00, 000- Rs. 7, 00, 000

Admission Criteria for M Tech

Entrance based as well as merit-based.

Average Placements after M Tech

Rs. 3, 00, 000- Rs. 7, 85, 000

Types of Jobs after M Tech: Design Engineer and Software Engineer as well as Software Developer. Also, Project Leader and Assistant Professor as well as System Engineer and Project Coordinator.

Ph.D. in VLSI Design

The doctoral level course or Ph.D. is available in the VLSI design discipline. Students get to know about the VLSI circuit design flow during this study. This also aids them in comprehending the IC chip’s architecture. Moreover, the PhD program was focused on the concepts of VLSI design and meeting the industrial needs through expertise in CMOS chip designing. The VLSI Design incorporates the latest advancements in the realm of hierarchical design approach and methods. The course also gives technical knowledge a about the different parts of the system, which aids the applicants in comprehending the system’s operation.

The course is designed primarily for candidates who wish to learn about the various aspects of VLSI. The admissions to these research degrees are determined by the student’s performance in the entrance exam. This examination is administered by the relevant department at the university or institution. Those candidates who have passed the GATE or NET & SET and M. Phil. or JRF examinations in relevant subjects administered by apex bodies such as CSIR and UGC would be excluded from writing the entrance exam. The institute’s Departmental Committee may evaluate the student’s research or earlier work experience when granting the exemption.

A student may be exempt from the entrance exam and pre- Ph. D. course work if he or she has already obtained a doctorate degree. However, the degree must be obtained in a relevant subject from a University or institute approved by UGC. The student will be able to pay the fee of the course or the registration fee only after completing both processes. A limited and fixed number of candidates will only be permitted to pursue the Ph.D. program.

Colleges/Universities offering PhD in VLSI Design

College Name

Affiliated University

Eligibility

Gautam Buddha University Uttar Pradesh

 Merit

Lovely School of Technology and Computer Applications Punjab

 Merit

Anna University Chennai

 Merit

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology Jalandhar

 Merit

Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology Shibpur

 Merit

IIT Guwahati

 Merit

Indian Institute of Science Bangalore

 Merit

Average Fees for PhD in VLSI Design

Rs. 2, 00, 000- Rs. 3, 00, 000

Admission Criteria for PhD in VLSI Design

Entrance based as well as merit-based.

Average Placements after PhD in VLSI Design

Rs. 5, 00, 000- Rs. 7, 00, 000

What to do after PhD in VLSI Design?

In the current environment, the field of VLSI has a larger scope. Research degrees in the VLSI design field can assist a person in becoming a successful professional. In the VLSI design discipline, there are various areas of research available. These subjects can be easily listed. But the popularity of the disciplines of the research is determined by the study materials available and reference guides along with past evaluations and availability of other resources.

Circuits and Devices as well as Allied Areas and System Design are the four basic areas of research in VLSI. In comparison to other sectors, device research has increased in recent years. This demonstrates the increased competition in this field, as researchers compete on an international scale. Irrespective of the area of research, the design must be thoroughly tested and implemented. Moreover, research is a field in which one must work with one’s heart and soul, and only then the hard effort will be rewarded in the end.

Arizona State University (USA) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) and TU Delft (Netherlands) as well as Clemson University are some of the universities abroad providing the Ph. D. degree. Furthermore, Boston University (USA) and Duke University (USA) and Columbia University (USA) give great PhD education. Some of the IITs and BITS Pilani and other institutions like VIT in India also have good VLSI research programs.

VLSI Design Job Roles & Levels in India

VLSI Design is a highly sophisticated and advanced discipline of electronic engineering. Because semiconductors are used in practically every industry, there are a myriad of work opportunities available in this sector. Fresh graduates who are creative and well-versed in this discipline can have a prosperous career. Design Engineers and Verification Engineers and CAD Engineers as well as Application Engineers are some of the job poistions they can hold. The following are some of the industries that employ a VLSI design graduate:

  • Electricals, Electronics, Telecommunications, Information Technology, Computing, Production Control, Automation, Instrumentation, Consultancy.

Electronics and Communication Consultant: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

Electronic communications experts are the persons responsible for setting up and maintaining a wide range of Internet & television systems. They are also responsible for troubleshooting the issues related with these electronic equipment.

Average Salary for Beginners:

Rs.3, 00, 000 LPA to Rs. 6, 00, 000 LPA

Average Salary for Mid-Experienced:

Average Salary for Highly Experienced

Network Planning Engineer: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

Depending upon the market and the rival’s products, the network planning engineer analyses and recommends adjustments to meet the network requirements. In order to fulfill the requirements of the organization they have to know the field concepts and methods & processes.

Average Salary for Beginners:

Rs.2, 00, 000 LPA to Rs. 5, 00, 000 LPA

Average Salary for Mid-Experienced:

Average Salary for Highly Experienced

Customer Support Engineer: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

The role of a customer support engineer is to assist clients with technical product concerns and to review refund or exchange requests. Also, they have the expertise in dealing with the products that their organization creates and manufactures. Additionally, they help consumers work through technical challenges and handle numerous problems relating to the items.

Average Salary for Beginners:

Rs.2, 00, 000 LPA to Rs. 4, 00, 000 LPA

Average Salary for Mid-Experienced:

Average Salary for Highly Experienced

Technical Director: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

The job of a technical director is overseeing the technical equipment on a film or television set. In the field of entertainment, the technical director is in charge of the technical department. He also ensures that the technical equipment can operate safely.

Average Salary for Beginners:

Rs.2, 00, 000 LPA to Rs. 5, 00, 000 LPA

Average Salary for Mid-Experienced:

Average Salary for Highly Experienced

Field Test Engineer: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

The responsibility of a field test engineer consists of thoroughly testing a new product before it is released to the market. They aim to eradicate all technical concerns by evaluating the product. So that it operates efficiently and reduces customer grievances.

Average Salary for Beginners:

Rs.3, 00, 000 LPA to Rs. 6, 00, 000 LPA

Average Salary for Mid-Experienced:

Average Salary for Highly Experienced

Senior Sales Manager: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

They are in charge of developing business policies and methods that will help a brand and a company succeed. The sales managers are analytically strong and keep strong customer relationships during the entire sales process.

Average Salary for Beginners:

Rs.9, 00, 000 LPA to Rs. 12, 00, 000 LPA

Average Salary for Mid-Experienced:

Average Salary for Highly Experienced

Database Administrator: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

The job of a database administrator requires planning and developing a database. They are also responsible for troubleshooting any issues that may arise on behalf of the users.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs. 7, 00, 000 LPA to Rs. 10, 00, 000 LPA

Average Salary for Mid-Experienced: Rs. LPA to LPA

Average Salary for Highly Experienced: Rs. LPA to LPA

Lecturer: Beginner, Mid-Experienced & Highly Experienced

Assistant Professors are candidates having achieved the Junior Research Fellowship Award. They perform the job of educating students in their industry by giving them the opportunity to stay abreast of new developments.

Average Salary for Beginners:

Rs.5, 00, 000 LPA to Rs. 7, 00, 000 LPA

Average Salary for Mid-Experienced:

Average Salary for Highly Experienced

Frequently Asked Questions About VLSI Design in India

Q1 Explain the historical significance of VLSI Design and how it came into being?

  • The transistor’s originated in the early 1920s, which was the time when many inventors were making attempts to control current through solid-state diodes. This was being done by converting them into triodes. Later, radar detectors were created using silicon and germanium crystals which led to several advancements in the manufacturing process. Furthermore, this technique emerged during the time following World War II and become a huge success. Thereafter, scientists who were earlier working on the radar returned to develop solid-state devices. The first transistor was invented in the year of 1947 at Bell Labs. Thereafter, the field of electronics evolved from vacuum tubes to solid-state devices.
  • Carrying the little transistors in hand the electrical engineers in the 1950s realized they were capable of building circuits that are significantly more complex. However, with the increase in the complexity of the circuits the problematic issues increased as well. The size of the circuit was one of the primary issues faced by them. The speed of a complex circuit, such as a computer, was also an issue they faced. Moreover, the cables that were required for connecting the components were to belong if the components are large. Furthermore, the electric signals took a huge amount of time for travelling through the circuit. Subsequently, it caused the computer to slow down.
  • Jack Kilby & Robert Noyce found a solution to this difficulty by constructing all the components and chips using the same monolithic block of semiconductor material, Hence, a solution was arrived at to tackle the earlier problems in the form of the development of the integrated circuit. Consequently, the manufacturing process was capable of mechanized and smaller circuits could constructed. This subsequently led to the development of the idea that all components can integrated on a single crystal silicon wafer. This result, lead to the small-scale integration SSI developed in the early 1960 and in the late 60s medium-scale integration MSI developed.
  • The first MOS integrated circuit for commercial use was brought into being by General Microelectronics in 1964. The MOS integrated circuit being used also made it possible to integrate more than ten thousand transistors in a sole chip in the early 1970s. In the years of 1970 and 1980, this led to the expansion and development of VLSI. Which made it possible to integrate tens and thousands of these MOS transistors on one solo chip. During the later years the number of transistors increased to hundreds of thousands and then millions, now it is capable of being in billions.
  • Every single original semiconductor chips contained two transistors. With the progress in technical several additional transistors were being added. Consequently, more and more individual functions, as well as systems, were being merged time after time. Therefore, the original integrated circuits which contained only a few components not more than ten diodes and transistors as well as capacitors. Which allowed only one or more logic gates to be built on a single device called small scale integration SSI. It was later on improved to incorporate devices comprising of hundreds of logic gates called as medium scale integration MSI. Large-scale integration LSI or systems having a minimum of a thousand logic gates were developed as a result of further research. Microprocessors in today’s time having millions of logic gates along with individual transistors in billions were developed. This significantly surpassed the milestone.
  • Once there was a growing demand to label and assess the different degrees of large scale integration that were above VLSI. For this purpose the terms such as ultra large scale integration ULSI were also introduced. However, because of a large number of gates as well as transistors being available on ordinary devices, such subtle distinctions lost their relevance. Hence, the terms signifying higher integration levels than that of VLSI are not being used anymore.
  • Billion transistor processors were first introduced for commercial purposes in 2008. As semiconductor manufacture increased beyond the capacity of 65 nm techniques at that time, it was being more used increasingly. Unlike the earlier devices, modern designs used significant design automation and automated logic synthesis techniques for laying out transistors. It thereby allowed greater complexity levels to be achieved in the logic functions. To achieve the maximum level of efficiency, certain high-performance logic blocks, such as the SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) cell are being designed even now.

Q2 What do you understand by the term VLSI design?

  • The technique by which an integrated circuit is produced by merging several transistors onto a sole chip is known as very large-scale integration or VLSI. It was during the time when complicated semiconductors and communication techniques were being developed that VLSI was born. An example of a VLSI device is a microprocessor. Prior to the development of VLSI, most of the integrated circuits were capable of performing only a restricted range of functions. A CPU and ROM as well as RAM along with other glue logic constitute the components of an electronic circuit. VLSI gained importance over the years because it allowed IC designers to combine all of these components into a single chip. The electronics sector has grown at a breakneck pace in recent decades. This is because of the increasing developments in system design applications as well as large scale integration technologies.
  • The integrated circuits are being used in high-performance computing and controls along with telecommunications and image as well as video processing. And consumer electronics, have been growing at a rapid pace right from the introduction of the very-large-scale integration (VLSI) designs. Furthermore, the customers have gained several benefits from these cutting edge technology in the form of high-resolution low bit rate video as well as cellular communications. This is because they offer a vast array of applications and provide processing power and also portability is made possible. Therefore, this pattern is predicted to remain and grow in the coming years.
  • The technique or process using which several transistors are embedded or integrated onto a sole semiconductor microchip is known as very large scale integration. VLSI technology evolved and developed in late 1970. This is about the same time when advanced level computer processor microchips were developed. Microprocessors and microcontrollers are the two most common types of VLSI devices. VLSI is said to be a type of integrated circuit that consists of several devices being integrated on a single chip. Moreover, the word, similar to other scale integration based classifications which were based on the number of gates and transistors per IC, was developed in the 1970s.
  • The developments in large scale integration technologies are also the reasons for the extraordinary growth witnessed by the electronics industry. Besides, the opportunities for using ICs in control applications and telecommunications and high-performance computing has increased significantly with the growth of VLSI designs. Because of the development of VLSI technology, technologies such as smartphones and cell communications have become portable, they have processing capacity and provide application access. With a rise in demand, this trend is believed to continue in the future.

Q3 What are the different types of VLSI design?

  • In order to reap the benefits of integration, system designers need to have a quick technique of implementation using silicon. Designing silicon circuits used to be a highly specialized task in the 1970s. It also required a tight collaboration to be present between the circuit designer and the process engineer. The process of laying out and debugging a complex circuit with one lakh transistors might take ten years’ time. Therefore, in recent years, research has been focused on developing designs using computer technology. This also resulted in the emergence of a variety of design styles. Moreover, the style which is chosen for a particular application may be influenced the local customs and habits.
  • Full Custom Design: Circuits of complicated nature like the microprocessors which will be a very high-volume product (more than 100,000 per annum) need to make use of every square millimetre of silicon efficiently. This is for obtaining maximum yield and thus minimizing cost. Hence, full custom design is the term used for describing this type of design. The creation of a specification may appear to be a simple operation, but producing an unambiguous explanation of the requirements might be challenging, depending on the application.
  • This becomes even more difficult because of the lack of a universal language that can use for precisely specifying a system of this level. In an ideal world, a specification would submitted to a CAD system which would then synthesize the design without human interaction. Such technologies developed, but theres still a long way to go in order to make them a reality. Silicon compilers might commercially accessible for a few restricted sets of applications but available at a huge cost.
  • System Representation: A hierarchical strategy for representing evolutionary nature at many levels. The system is essentially defined by the behaviour and functionality that its required to have. Other particular features of the needed performance, such as the maximum power consumption, might established at the same time. In addition, the primary design always created and tested in comparison to the previously defined specifications. And if it doesn’t match these requirements, the design must altered and improved. Following the completion of the functions, an outline of the design structure can be constructed.
  • This can be further broken into modules, which can subsequently be subdivided into a gate level description. Finally, the structural description is converted into a geometrical layout that includes all production information. The three realms of behaviour, structure and geometrical layout distinguish the many sorts of design activities. They also led to the creation of a graphical way for illustrating the design flow of digital integrated circuits. The Y-chart, which was first introduced by D Gajski, is also known as this.
  • Semi-Custom Design: A variety of design styles have been created to cut down on the time it takes to create designs. While yet leaving a decent level of latitude for the system designer to figure out the silicon structure for a specific application. The layout production activity is the most time-consuming. As a result, there has been a strong desire to obtain the desired result in a shorter time frame. Semi-custom design, as opposed to full-custom design, allows the creator complete creative power. Semi-custom designs come in two flavors: standard cells and gate arrays.
  • Gate arrays, also known as sea of gates and uncommitted logic array ULA, are less expensive than full bespoke design. Or master slice design styles do not necessitate a thorough understanding of the devices and circuits by the system designer. In theory, the semiconductor manufacturer gives the designer a matrix of cells, which he or she subsequently customizes.
  • Customization is done electronically in current Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) arrays, such as those provided by Xilinx or Altera. This is also accomplished by the programming of RAM cells, whose output controls the pass transistors and MOS gates. These cells contain I/O buffers and arrays of customizable logic blocks (CLBs). They’re also made up of programmable multiplexers and logic gates, as well as one or more bistable devices.
  • Standard Cells: By removing the requirement for a fixed structure, standard cells enable the designer to make greater use of the silicon available. Low-functioning building blocks make up cells. They can be extracted from a variety of pieces and joined to form larger building blocks or the full system. Depending on the needs of the designer, each type can have a variety of implementations to provide varied drive capacities. Each cell will be characterized in terms of time delay vs. load capacitance and other metrics by the manufacturer.
  • CAD: The CAD’s quality and features have a considerable impact on the time it takes to create a design. In addition, the necessity to reduce design time has led to the development of systems that can design something that would have taken years in years in months. Each of these design methodologies makes use of some CAD tools. Logic simulation is a nice example. Even for a basic circuit with thousands of gates, this can take a long time to compute. However, a few years ago, it was realized, and now various CAD businesses can provide specific purpose hardware to boost design speed and reduce bottlenecks. This reflects the rapid pace at which CAD tools are developed.

Q4 Describe the different post-graduation degrees available in the VLSI design discipline?

  • E.: M. E. or Master of Engineering in Very Large-Scale Integration Design refers to the two-year postgraduate degree program. This program comes under the electronics engineering domain. It focuses on VLSI based circuit design. Students intending to pursue an M E VLSI design degree need to have a minimum of fifty per cent marks in their undergraduate degree. The degree can be in Electronics and Communication Engineering or Information Technology or Computer Science or Instrumentation or any other relevant discipline.
  • In India, the cost of this degree ranges from Rs. 50,000 to Rs. 2, 00, 000, depending upon the university type (private or government or deemed). There are various government and private institutions offering this postgraduate degree. Some of the institutions offering this M E VLSI Design degree includes Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology Hyderabad and Dr D.Y. Patil College of Engineering of Pune. Also, Madras Institute of Technology of Chennai. The admissions to these institutions depend on the merit scores or scores obtained in the GATE or TANCET entrance examinations.
  • The sole entrance test conducted at the state level for M E VLSI Design is Karnataka PGCET. Students pursuing this course are provided with the opportunity to gain specific skills and practical knowledge. Algorithm and system architecture and physical designs the subjects included in the course study. Low power design strategies and mixed-mode design methodologies also covered throughout the course. Upon completing the M E degree in VLSI Design, students pursue either M. Phil. or Ph. D. degree in this field. They also have the opportunity to work as Project Designer and Networking engineers and Design engineers. The average salary package for these jobs ranges from Rs. 1.5 to 5 lakhs.
  • Tech.: M Tech or Master of Technology is a master’s program available in the VLSI Design discipline. The course has a duration of two years which broke into four semesters having a duration of six months. The course develops for helping students learn about designing circuits and semiconductor devices. They also help in learning the manner in which the systems to incorporated using embedded components. Additionally, the students need to have obtained at least fifty per cent marks in a B. E. or B. Tech or equivalent degree from a recognized university to apply for this course.

M Tech-

  • VLSI Design admission is undertaken on the basis of merit. But a few renowned universities and colleges also hold entrance examinations for offering admissions to this degree program. India Institute of Technology Delhi and Indian Institute of Technology Mumbai and Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati also provide this postgraduate course. Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur & Indian Institute of Technology Chennai is one of the renowned colleges offering this degree.
  • The fee of the M Tech course is somewhere between INR 2 and INR 7 lakhs per year. This fee might differ from institute to institute. Students interested in M Tech in VLSI Design study the subjects including analogue or mixed-mode design. They also learn about the VLSI design concepts and hardware description languages and VLSI technology. Furthermore, semiconductor devices VLSI circuits and VLSI design LAB along with many other topics are studied.
  • The job positions available to the students after completing this degree are that of Design Engineers and Software Engineers. Similarly, that of Software Developers and Project Leaders and Assistant Professors as well as System Engineers. Project Coordinators and other such positions in public and private organizations are also available to M Tech in VLSI Design graduates.
  • For fresher postgraduates having M Tech in VLSI Design, the average placement package offered is between Rs. 3,00,000- Rs. 7,85,000. The companies providing job placements to these students include Wipro and Cisco System as well as Robert Bosch Engineering. Microsoft and Google and TCS as well as Defence Research & Development Organization are also among the recruiters of M Tech VLSI Design students.
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List of Universities offering Vlsi Design
List of Universities