# Mathematics: Meaning, Type, Scope, Courses, Jobs & more.

## Introduction

Basically, Mathematics is the abstract study of number, amount, and space, either as abstract notions ( pure mathematics ) or as applied to other fields such as physics and engineering ( applied mathematics ). As a matter of fact, It has been derived its name from various languages i.e In the Late 16th century: from Old French mathematique, to Latin (ars) Mathematica ‘mathematical (art)’, from Greek mathmatik (tekhn), to the foundation of manthanein ‘learn’.

Generally, Mathematicians look for patterns, generate new hypotheses, and prove truth by rigorous deduction from well-chosen axioms and definitions. Also, The science of mathematics is concerned with the logic of shape, quantity, and order. Math is present in every aspect of our lives.

### Brief history of mathematics

Archimedes the Greek mathematician is recognised as the “Father of Mathematics”. As a matter of fact, Mathematics is an ancient science that has existed since the beginning of time. Who is the father of mathematics is a major topic of debate in this discipline of research.

On one hand, Mathematical requirements evolved as a result of societal demands. On the other hand, mathematical requirements become more complex as a civilization becomes more complex.

Firstly, Math is a strong instrument for global knowledge and communication that organises and prevents chaos in our life. Secondly, Mathematics aids in our understanding of the world and is a good tool for developing mental discipline. Thirdly, Logical reasoning, critical thinking, creative thinking, abstract or spatial thinking, problem-solving abilities, and even successful communication skills are all encouraged by math.

As a matter of fact, Mathematics is a great approach to develop mental discipline while also encouraging logical reasoning and mental rigour. However, understanding the topics of other educational courses such as science, social studies, and even music and art is dependent on mathematical knowledge.

Firstly, Mathematics is an essential component of human logic and thought, as well as attempts to comprehend the world and ourselves. Secondly,It is a great approach to develop mental discipline while also encouraging logical reasoning and mental rigour. However, understanding the topics of other educational courses such as science, social studies, and even music and art is dependent on mathematical knowledge.

## What is Mathematics?

Basically, Mathematics (from Greek: máthma, ‘knowledge, study, learning’) involves the study of issues such as quantity (number theory), structure (algebra), space (geometry), and change (change theory) (analysis). Likewise, Mathematicians look for and use patterns to construct new conjectures, and they employ mathematical proof to determine whether they are true or not.

Mathematic discovery has been at the forefront of every civilized society from the dawn of recorded history, and it is still used in even the most basic nations. Mathematical requirements evolved as a result of societal demands. The mathematical requirements become more complex as a civilization becomes more complex.

### Evolution of mathematics in brief

As a matter of fact, Mathematics evolved from counting, computation, measuring, and the methodical study of the shapes and motions of physical objects through the application of abstraction and logic. Since the beginning of written records, practical mathematics has been a human endeavor. The amount of time it takes to solve a mathematical issue might range from years to centuries. Primitive tribes wanted little extra than the capacity to count, however additionally trusted math to calculate the placement of the solar and the physics of hunting.

It has progressed from simple counting, measurement, and calculating, as well as the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects, to the broad, sophisticated, and often abstract discipline we know today, through the use of abstraction, imagination, and logic.

Also, Rigorous reasoning initially appeared in Greek mathematics,most notably in Euclid’s Elements.

Basically, Mathematics progressed slowly until the Renaissance when mathematical advances combined with new scientific discoveries resulted in a tremendous increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has lasted to this day. Many fields, including natural science, engineering, health, economics, and the social sciences, rely on mathematics. For instance, Statistics and game theory are two examples of completely new mathematical disciplines that have emerged from applied mathematics.

## HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS

As a matter of fact, Several civilizations contributed to the development of mathematics as we know it today, including China, India, Egypt, Central America, and Mesopotamia. In fact, The Sumerians were the first to devise a system of counting. Mathematicians invented Arithmetic, which comprises basic operations, multiplication, fractions, and square roots. Likewise , The Mayans built intricate calendar systems and were adept astronomers six hundred years later in America. In this period the concept of zero was invented.

Further , Mathematicians began to work with geometry as civilizations advanced, which computes areas and volumes to perform angular measurements and has numerous practical applications. Similarly, Everything from home construction to fashion and interior design uses geometry.

A Persian mathematician Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khowarizmi established that Geometry went hand in hand with algebra in the ninth century. Similarly, He also created algorithms, which are a misspelling of his name, for multiplying and diving numbers quickly.

As a matter of fact, Algebra provided a method for dividing inheritances and allocating resources to civilizations. However, Mathematicians who studied algebra solved linear equations and systems, as well as quadratic equations and explored positive and negative solutions. In fact, In ancient times, mathematicians began to study number theory. Number theory examines figurate numbers, number categorization, and theorems, and has its roots in the production of shape.

### Math & Greeks

Basically, The study of arithmetic in early cultures served as the foundation for the Greeks’ abstract mathematics, which they developed through geometry. Also, Until contemporary times, Greece, with its great building and sophisticated government system, was the paradigm of mathematical success.

There were several schools of Greek mathematicians.

• Thales, who is credited with discovering five basic theorems in a planar geometry and giving the first deductive proofs founded the Ionian School.
• Pythagoras developed the Pythagorean School, which focused on proportion, plane and solid geometry, and number theory.
• Zeno of Elea, noted for his four parables, was a member of the Eleatic School. The Sophist School is credited with providing sophisticated Greek cities with higher education. Sophists used abstract reasoning to teach people how to dispute in public.
• The Platonic School, created by Plato, supported mathematical inquiry in an atmosphere similar to that of a modern university.
• Eudoxus created the School of Eudoxus, which produced many theorems in plane geometry and developed the philosophy of proportion and magnitude.
• Also, Aristotle founded the Tradition of Aristotle, also known as the Lyceum, which followed the Platonic school.

### Introduction to Trigonometry

A number of Greeks, in addition to the mathematicians named above, have left an indelible mark on the history of mathematics. In fact, This age produced Archimedes, Apollonius, Diophantus, Pappus, and Euclid. Mathematicians began working with trigonometry around this period.

Furthermore, Trigonometry is a computational subject that needs the measurement of angles as well as the computing of trigonometric functions such as sine, cosine, tangent, and their reciprocals. Similarly, Trigonometry is based on Greek mathematicians such as Euclid’s synthetic geometry. Ptolemy’s theorem, for example, establishes rules for the chords of the sum and difference of angles, which correspond to the sine and cosine sum and difference formulas.

Not to mention, The Arabs, then the Europeans, took over the development of mathematics after Rome fell. Fibonacci was notable arithmetic, algebra, and geometry theorist who was one of the first European mathematicians. As a matter of fact, Decimal fractions, logarithms, and projective geometry were all developed during the Renaissance. Likewise, Theorems like probability and analytic geometry ushered in a new era of mathematics, with calculus at the vanguard.

### The formation of calculus

Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz created the foundations of calculus in the 17th century. In fact, Calculus went through three stages of growth: anticipation, development, and rigorization. Similarly, Mathematicians were seeking to identify regions under curves or maximize specific attributes using strategies that entailed infinite operations during the anticipation stage. Basically, Newton and Leibniz combined these strategies in the development stage by using the derivative and integral. However, Mathematicians in the 18th century took on the rigorization step and were able to justify and build the final level of calculus, despite their methods not always being logical.

On the other hand, Other mathematicians have adopted a more theoretical approach than calculus, which is a sort of continuous mathematics. Basically, Discrete mathematics is a branch of mathematics that deals with objects that can only have one distinct value. Because it encompasses the study of algorithms, discrete mathematics is the mathematical language of computer science. For instance, Combinatorics, graph theory, and the science of computation are examples of discrete mathematics fields.

### Role of Mathematics In Todays World

Basically, Many people wonder what role mathematicians play in today’s society. Math, such as applied mathematics, is not only relevant in today’s world; it is also critical. Applied mathematics basically means the branches of mathematics concerned with the study of the physical, biological, or sociological world. In fact, The goal of applied math is to establish a collection of strategies for solving scientific problems.

For Instance, Mathematical physics, mathematical biology, control theory, aerospace engineering, and math finance are all examples of modern applied math. Applied math not only solves issues but also identifies new ones and creates new technical specialties. Applied Mathematicians are required to have expertise in a wide range of math and science disciplines, as well as physical intuition, common sense, and collaboration. Building a mathematical model of a phenomenon, solving the model, and developing recommendations for performance improvement is a popular strategy in applied math.

In fact, Pure mathematics strives to tackle these abstract difficulties and technicalities, and its efforts have resulted in great breakthroughs for humanity, such as Alan Turing’s 1937 theory of the Universal Turing Machine. Basically, The Universal Turing Machine, which began as an abstract concept, later lay the foundation for the modern computer’s development. Physical world’s restrictions cant restricts pure mathematics as pure mathematics is abstract and theoretical.

## TYPES OF MATHEMATICS

The following branches of mathematics can be roughly classified:

Basically, Among the various fields of mathematics, arithmetic is the oldest and most fundamental. It is concerned with numbers and their basic operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Furthermore, Algebra is a type of arithmetic in which we combine integers with unknown quantities. Likewise, These unknown numbers are represented by the letters of the English alphabet, such as X, Y, A, B, and so on, or symbols. Letters aid in the generalization of formulas and principles, as well as the identification of unknown missing values in algebraic expressions and equations.

Additionally, Geometry is the most practical field of mathematics that deals with the shapes, sizes, and properties of figures. For instance, Points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids are the basic constituents of geometry.

Other fields of mathematics that you would study in higher grades are calculus and statistics.

Additionally, Trigonometry is the study of relationships between angles and sides of triangles. It is derived from two Greek concepts, trigon (meaning triangle) and metron (means measurement).

The analysis is the discipline of mathematics that studies the rate of change in various quantities. Calculus is the foundation of analysis.

#### List of Mathematical Subdisciplines Pure Mathematics:

• Algebra and Number Theory
• Geometry
• Arithmetic / Combinatorics
• Topology
• Analytical Mathematics
• Mathematical Applications
• Trigonometry, Calculus, Statistics, Probability & Set Theory

### ALGEBRA

Basically, Algebra (from Arabic:, romanized: al-jabr, lit.’reunion of shattered parts, bonesetting is a branch of mathematics that includes number theory, geometry, and analysis. Similarly, Algebra In its broadest sense, is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating them; it is a thread that runs through practically all of mathematics. However, It covers everything from calculating simple equations to studying abstractions like groups, rings, and fields.

Similarly, Elementary algebra refers to the more fundamental aspects of algebra, while abstract algebra or modern algebra refers to the more abstract aspects.  Likeise, Abstract algebra is a major branch of advanced mathematics that is largely studied by mathematicians who work in the field. However, The use of abstractions in elementary algebra differs from arithmetic, such as employing letters to represent numbers that are either unknown or have a wide range of values.

In fact, Algebra provides much clearer and easier techniques for creating formulas and solving equations than the earlier method of putting everything down in words. Also, An algebraist is a mathematician who specialises in algebraic study.

#### Applications of algebra

Using linear algebra, its uniqueness reveals a wide range of applications. Other uses of linear algebra in the real world include search engine ranking, decision tree induction, software code testing in software engineering, graphics, facial recognition, prediction, and so on.

### Geometry

Basically, Geometry (from the Ancient Greek: ; geo- “earth”, -metron “measuring”) is one of the oldest fields of mathematics, alongside arithmetic. In fact, It is concerned with spatial qualities relating to figure distance, shape, size, and relative location. Also, A geometer is a mathematician who works in the discipline of geometry.

Not to mention, Several discoveries in the nineteenth century greatly expanded the scope of geometry. In fact, Gauss’ Theorema Egregium (“extraordinary theorem”), which states that the Gaussian curvature of a surface is independent of any specific embedding in a Euclidean space, is one of the oldest such discoveries.

Also, It emerged that non-Euclidean geometries (geometries lacking the parallel postulate) might be produced without causing any contradictions later in the nineteenth century. For Instance, The non-Euclidean geometry that underpins general relativity is a well-known example.

#### Applications of Geometry In ART

As a matter of fact, There are a variety of ways in which art and mathematics are linked. The theory of perspective, for example, demonstrated that geometry is more than merely metric qualities of figures: perspective is the genesis of projective geometry. Likewise, Artists have always utilised proportion in their work. Vitruvius devised a complex theory of ideal human proportions. However, These principles have been exploited and altered from Michelangelo to present comic book artists.

Not to mention, The golden ratio is a proportion that has sparked debate in the art world.

#### Applications of Geometry In Architecture

Basically, Geometry is used in a variety of ways in architecture. For Instance, The use of projective geometry to generate forced perspective, the use of conic sections in the construction of domes and similar things, the use of tessellations, and the usage of symmetry are all examples of geometric applications in architecture.

#### Applications of Geometry In Physics

Throughout history, the study of astronomy has been a major source of geometric issues, particularly in regard to mapping the positions of stars and planets on the celestial sphere and explaining the link between celestial body movements. In fact, Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian geometry is used in general relativity. Similarly, Quantum information theory, like string theory, uses multiple different types of geometry.

### TOPOLOGY

The study of the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending is called Topology (from the Greek words τόπoς, ‘place, location,’ and  λόγος ‘study,’) That is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, glueing, or passing through itself.

A topological space is a set having a topology that allows for the definition of continuous deformation of subspaces and, more broadly, all sorts of continuity. Basically, Any distance or metric establishes a topology, hence Euclidean spaces and, more broadly, metric spaces are examples of topological spaces. A topological attribute is one that is invariant under such deformations. The dimension, which distinguishes between a line and a surface; compactness, which distinguishes between a line and a circle; and connectedness, which distinguishes a circle from two non-intersecting circles, are all instances of topological qualities.

As a matter of fact , The theories that underpin topology date back to Gottfried Leibniz, who envisioned the geometria situs and analysis situs in the 17th century. The polyhedron formula and Leonhard Euler’s Seven Bridges of Königsberg issue are arguably the field’s initial theorems. In fact, Johann Benedict Listing coined the term topology in the nineteenth century, but the concept of a topological space did not emerge until the first decades of the twentieth century.

#### Applications of Topology in Biology

For instance, Various biological systems, including molecules and nanostructures, have been studied using topology e.g., membranous objects. Similarly, To categorize and compare the topology of folded proteins and nucleic acids Circuit topology and knot theory, in particular, have been widely used. Also, Folded molecular chains are classified into circuit topologies based on the paired arrangement of intra-chain contacts and chain crossings. To investigate the effects of specific enzymes on DNA In biology, knot theory, a branch of topology, is used. These enzymes cut, twist, and rejoin DNA, resulting in knotting and slower electrophoresis.

In fact, To depict the link between phenotype and genotype in evolutionary biology, topology is often used. Similarly, Phenotypic forms that appear to be extremely different can be separated by only a few mutations , Depending on how genetic alterations map to phenotypic changes during development. Also, To assess the complexity of activity patterns in neural networks topological metrics such as the Euler characteristic and Betti number have been employed in neuroscience.

#### Applications of Topology in Computer Science

Basically, Topological data analysis use algebraic topology techniques to determine a set’s large-scale structure (for instance, determining if a cloud of points is spherical or toroidal). Topological data analysis’ primary method is to:

• To replace a set of data points a family of simplicial complexes, indexed by a proximity parameter, can be used.
• Analyze these topological complexes using algebraic topology, specifically the persistent homology theory.
• Encode the permanent homology of a data set using a barcode, which is a parameterized variant of a Betti number.

For Instance, To formalize several aspects of programming language semantics, such as domain theory topology is used. In this context, Steve Vickers defines topological spaces as Boolean or Heyting algebras over open sets with semidecidable (equivalently, finitely observable) features, drawing on work by Samson Abramsky and Michael B. Smyth.

#### Applications of Topology in Physics

Furthermore, In physics, topology is important in fields like condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, and physical cosmology.

Not to mention The topological dependency of mechanical characteristics in solids interests both Mechanical engineering and materials science . Also, The organisation and network architectures of molecules and constituent units in materials determine their electrical and mechanical properties. In order to better understand why such structures, which are essentially empty space, have such a high strength-to-weight ratio the compressive strength of crumpled topologies is investigated. Thus, Topology is also important in contact mechanics, where the relationship between stiffness and friction and the dimensionality of surface structures is studied with applications in multi-body physics.

A topological quantum field theory (or TQFT) is a quantum field theory that computes topological invariants.

Additionally, TQFTs were invented by physicists, but they are also of mathematical interest, as they are related to knot theory, algebraic topology’s theory of four-manifolds, and algebraic geometry’s theory of moduli spaces. Thus, For their contributions to topological field theory Fields Medals have been awarded to Donaldson, Jones, Witten, and Kontsevich.

Also, Different manifolds can maintain different sorts of strings, hence the topological categorization of Calabi–Yau manifolds has fundamental consequences in string theory.

For instance, To define the overall shape of the cosmos topology is a term used in cosmology.  The name given to this field of study is Spacetime topology.

#### Application of Topology in Robotics

To represent a robot’s possible positions a manifold termed configuration space can be used. Basically, In the field of motion planning paths between two points in configuration, space is found. These routes show how the robot’s joints and other parts move into the intended position.

### TRIGONOMETRY

Basically, Trigonometry (from the Greek trignon, “triangle,” and metron, “measure”) is a field of mathematics concerned with the relationships between triangle side lengths and angles. In fact, Applications of geometry to astronomical research gave rise to the field in the Hellenistic civilization during the 3rd century BC. Not to mention, the Greeks concentrated on chord calculations, whereas Indian mathematicians established the first tables of values for trigonometric ratios (also known as trigonometric functions) as a sine.

Throughout history, Trigonometry has been used in geodesy, surveying, celestial mechanics, and navigation. Similarly, Trigonometry has a lot of different identities. To rewrite trigonometrical formulas in order to simplify them, find a more useful form of them, or solve an equation these trigonometric identities are frequently used.

#### Applications of Trigonometry in astronomy

Not to mention, For centuries to locate solar, lunar, and stellar positions, predict eclipses and describe planet orbits spherical trigonometry has been used.

The technique used in astronomy to calculate the distance to neighbouring stars, as well as in satellite navigation systems in modern times is called Triangulation.

#### Applications of Trigonometry in navigation

As a matter of fact, For centuries to locate solar, lunar, and stellar positions, predict eclipses and describe planet orbits Spherical trigonometry has been used.

To calculate the distance to neighbouring stars, as well as in satellite navigation systems in modern times triangulation is a technique used in astronomy.

#### Applications of Trigonometry in surveying

• In land surveying to calculate lengths, areas, and relative angles between objects trigonometry is used.
• To determine distances between landmarks on a broader scale Trigonometry is used.

#### Applications of Trigonometry in Periodic Functions

Furthermore, The sine and cosine functions are essential in the theory of periodic functions, which include sound and light waves. Also, Every continuous, periodic function, discovered Fourier, might be expressed as an infinite accumulation of trigonometric functions.

In fact, To express non-periodic functions as an integral of sines and cosines the Fourier transform can be used. Thus, Quantum mechanics and communications, among other domains, could benefit from this.

#### Applications of Trigonometry in Optics & Acoustics

As a matter of fact, Many physical sciences, such as acoustics and optics, benefit from trigonometry. They are used to describe sound and light waves, as well as to address boundary and transmission-related problems in these fields.

### STATISTICS

Basically, Statistics is the branch of mathematics that deals with the gathering, organising, analysing, interpreting, and presenting of data. Firstly, When applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem it is customary to start with a statistical population or model to be researched. Secondly, Populations can include a wide range of people or objects, such as “all individuals living in a country” or “every atom in a crystal.” Thirdly, Statistics is concerned with all aspects of data, including data collection planning in terms of survey and experiment design.

Not to mention, When census data isn’t available, statisticians create custom experiment designs and survey samples to acquire information. Thus, Conclusions and inferences drawn from the sample can be extrapolated to the entire population, representative sampling ensures that. Similarly, Experimental research is taking measurements of the system under investigation, altering the system, and then taking new measurements using the same approach to see if the manipulation changed the results. An observational study, on the other hand, does not include manipulating the data in any way.

#### Data Analysis

In data analysis, there are two primary statistical methods: descriptive statistics, which use indices like the mean or standard deviation to summarise data from a sample, and inferential statistics, which draw conclusions from data that is subject to random variation (e.g., observational errors, sampling variation).

Not to mention, Descriptive statistics are most often concerned with two properties of a distribution (sample or population): central tendency (or location) seeks to characterise the distribution’s central or typical value, whereas dispersion (or variability) seeks to characterise the extent to which members of the distribution depart from its centre and each other. Also, Probability theory, which deals with the examination of random processes, is used to make inferences based on mathematical statistics.

#### Standard statistical technique

A standard statistical technique is gathering data in order to assess the link between two statistical data sets, or between a data set and synthetic data produced from an idealised model.

#### Applied statistics, theoretical statistics and mathematical statistics

For instance, Theoretical statistics applied statistics, and mathematical statistics are all types of statistics. However, Applied statistics includes descriptive statistics and the use of inferential statistics. Similarly, Theoretical statistics encompasses mathematical statistics as well as the logical principles that underpin the justification of statistical inference methods.

In fact, Mathematical statistics encompasses not only the manipulation of probability distributions required to derive results for estimate and inference methods but also numerous areas of computational statistics and experiment design. Also, Statistical consultants can assist organisations and businesses that lack in-house expertise related to their specific problems.

#### Machine learning and data mining

Machine learning models are statistical and probabilistic models that employ computing methods to capture patterns in data.

Generally, In a wide range of academic fields, including the natural and social sciences, government, and business we can use statistics. In fact, Business statistics incorporate statistical methods into econometrics, audits, production, and operations, as well as service improvement and marketing research.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Chi-Square Test, Student’s T-Test, Linear Regression, Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, Shannon’s Diversity Index, Tukey’s Test, Cluster Analysis, Spearman’s Rank Correlation Test, and Principal Component Analysis are the 12 most common statistical tests, according to a study of two tropical biology journals.

Basically, A typical statistics course covers descriptive statistics, probability, binomial and normal distributions, the test of hypotheses and confidence intervals, linear regression, and correlation are all topics. Similarly, Modern college statistics courses emphasise proper test selection, interpretation of data, and usage of free statistics software.

## Scope of Mathematics in India

### Introduction

Proclus, a prominent mathematician said, “Wherever there is a number, there is beauty”. In fact, Proclus was a mathematician who was enamoured with numbers. Numbers had always been his first love. Are you as enthusiastic about numbers as he is? However, are you unsure about the breadth of mathematics?

As a matter of fact, Many lucrative occupations nowadays require dealing with numbers. Although number crunching may not be the most crucial duty in some occupations, dealing with numbers may be one of the most important foundations.

Additionally, Mathematics encompasses a wide spectrum of topics. As a result, you have the option of majoring in any major discipline, such as statistics, operations management, accounting, actuarial sciences, and so on. Thus, After earning a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, you can pursue a career in academia. Also, You can pursue a profession in data analysis as a mathematics student, which is now in great demand.

Mathematics opens up a world of possibilities in practically every field. A math graduate can choose from a wide range of careers.

In fact, One of the most popular disciplines among students has always been mathematics. Thus, Mathematics can be used in the field of Statistics, education, cryptography, actuarial science, and mathematical modelling to find work. Also, If you intend to pursue a profession in engineering, information technology, computer science, or social science, you’ll need a good background in mathematics.

#### Scope and Job Opportunities

• Following graduation or post-graduation in mathematics, there are numerous job opportunities in the discipline. For instance, Statistics, engineering, physical science, computer science, insurance, economics, astronomy, banking, and accounting all have a requirement for math students. Not to mention, Mathematics has a wide range of applications in both teaching and research.
• All of the highest-paying careers are related to mathematics, either directly or indirectly. Also, Jobs in mathematics are accessible in both the public and private sectors. Math graduates may work in government departments, semi-government, PSUs, research organisations, technical branches, banking sectors, colleges, and universities in the government sector.
• Aside from academic professions, trained mathematicians can find work at the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), National Aeronautic Limited (NAL), and Society for Electronic Transaction and Security (SETS) for a decent salary and benefits package (SETS). Specific disciplines such as financial mathematics and computing, as well as mathematics, offer excellent chances.
• In fact, Financial Mathematics is a booming field with some of the top products available in the business. IT behemoths such as IBM and Microsoft have hired applicants as scientists with salaries much exceeding your expectations.
• Generally, After a PhD, teaching is one of the most sought-after professions. Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, Reader, or Professor can be appointed by colleges & universities. Schools also provide excellent work opportunities for mathematics graduates in both the public and private sectors.

## Eligibility Criteria for Mathematics

To pursue mathematics as a course, you must first meet certain criteria in order to be considered for admission. Only those who are genuinely interested in mathematics and have a strong desire to succeed in it will be able to survive and excel in it. Thus, here are some of the points for the eligibility criteria of mathematics. Generally, It is necessary to pass 12th grade with physics, chemistry, and maths in order to pursue a profession in mathematics after that (PCM). Thus, The individual is now qualified to pursue math at the graduate level and to seek higher education.Mathematics courses are available at all levels, and the admissions process is similar to that of all other undergraduate and graduate programmes. The following are the minimum prerequisites for entrance to a mathematics course:

• The candidate must have completed a recognised education board’s 10+2 programme. The minimum cut-off may fluctuate amongst institutes, although it is estimated to be around 50%.
• Some institutions undertake supplementary entry exams, as well as interviews and group discussions, and students must meet the university’s cut-off.
• Students can also gain lateral admission to universities by passing different national and state-level course-related exams and crossing the cut-off marks.

• Candidates must have earned a bachelor’s degree in a comparable discipline from a recognised institution.
• Their major disciplines should be English and Mathematics, with a minimum aggregate of 50% in graduation.
• For admission, students may need to pass an additional university-level entrance exam.

#### For Doctorate

• The following are the common Ph.D. (Mathematics) qualifying criteria for being accepted into a college that offers this course:
• Tech. M.Sc./Master’s Degree in Mathematical or Physical Sciences M.Sc./Master’s Degree in Mathematical or Physical Sciences Candidates from any discipline are eligible to apply; however, eligibility varies per Institute.
• Each college also has a minimum aggregate mark requirement. It should be 55 percent overall (50 percent for SC/ST).
• The eligibility criteria given above are the fundamental eligibility criteria. Each college will have its own set of criteria by which prospective students will be evaluated.

## Entrance Exams in Mathematics

Generally, Students can apply for admission to mathematic specialization courses by taking a national/state level exam or a university level exam, as well as a personal interview, depending on the institute. The following is a list of the exams for all the graduate , postgraduate as well as doctorate levels.

#### ·         Entrance Exam for Delhi University (DUET)

Delhi University conducts the DUET exam for admission to over 100 colleges offering various bachelor’s and master’s degrees. Students with a 10+2 education from a recognised board are eligible for all graduate-level programmes, although postgraduate courses require a bachelor’s degree in any area.

#### ·         Sc. Joint Admission Test at IIT (IIT JAM)

It is a national level test for admission to various M.Sc. programmes held by IITs across India. A computer-based exam will be held in February. A bachelor’s degree is required in any discipline of science .

#### ·         Common Entrance Exam for Central Universities (CUCET)

It is a yearly examination for admission to various degrees, including B.Sc., B.Tech., and M.Tech. It takes place in September, and it is a national exam.

#### ·         Entrance Exam for CMI

Chennai Institute of Mathematics is hosting the entrance exam. It is a yearly test required for admission to graduate and postgraduate mathematics programmes. The exam is scheduled for October.

#### ·         The National Entrance Screening Test (NEST) is a test that is used to (NEST)

The admission test is held every year by a group of institutes on a nationwide basis. Students can enrol in a variety of M.Sc. courses, including Biology, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemistry, among others. It is held in August.

## Top courses for Bachelors in mathematics in India

### Introduction

Mathematics is a topic that we have studied since we were in primary school. For people who are interested in measurement, properties, and relationships of sets and characteristics utilizing symbols and numbers, mathematics provides a broad employment option. Mathematical knowledge is essential in our lives because it is used everywhere and in every field. Mathematics can be done both offline and online. Mathematics courses are accessible at the graduate, postgraduate, PhD, and diploma levels these days. Apart from that, there are other websites, such as Udemy, Coursera, and edX, that provide online certificate courses from various recognized universities and institutes. Mentioned below are some of the top courses for mathematics.

### ·         Bachelor of Science in Mathematics

The Bachelor of Science in Mathematics is a three-year undergraduate science programme. Students who enjoy mathematics can pursue a BSc in Mathematics, after which they will have a wide range of professional opportunities in analytics, software development, and banking.

Because BSc Mathematics admission is primarily based on merit, the student’s class 12th grades are quite crucial. Some colleges, such as DU, require students to take entrance tests.

#### Scope

The demand for BSc Mathematics graduates is growing every day, and graduates can pursue a variety of professional opportunities in a variety of sectors. The banking, finance, insurance, and risk management industries are on the lookout for qualified graduates in this profession who can assist them in growing their businesses. Taking a BSc Mathematics education will help graduates find profitable work possibilities with good pay.

#### List of top B.Sc. mathematics colleges in India

 College name Affiliated University Cut off Fergusson College Autonomous 96 Stella Maris college University of madras 90 St. Xaviers College Autonomous 91 Mount Carmel College Autonomous 94
##### Average fees for Bsc Mathematics

The average fee charged by BSc Mathematics Colleges for a three-year course ranges from INR 5,000 to 50,000.

##### Admission Criteria for Bsc Mathematics

Students are admitted to BSc Mathematics based on their performance and overall 10+2 scores, while some institutions administer an entrance exam to determine who is qualified for the course. The admissions procedure differs for every college, so students should check the official website for the most up-to-date information.

Shortlisted students must also attend a Group Discussion and Personal Interview round after passing the entrance tests so that the examiner can learn more about them.

##### Types of jobs after Bsc Mathematics

After completing their studies, BSc in Mathematics graduates can readily find work within corporations. The following are some of the most sought-after employment sectors for BSc Mathematics graduates in prominent organisations:

• Banking
• Finance
• Insurance
• Risk Management
• Universities
• Scientific Institutes
##### Average placements after Bsc Mathematics
• Hospitals
• Educational Sector
• Forensic Crime Research
• Chemical Industry
• Research Centres
• Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology Industry
• Environmental Management and Conservation
• Health Care Providers
• Space Research Institutes

### Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics

Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics (B.A. Math) is an undergraduate mathematics degree programme. Mathematical measurement, qualities, and relationships of quantities and sets are studied using numbers and symbols in a bachelor’s degree programme. The Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor of Science are the two degrees available in mathematics.

Both programmes include a core of mathematics courses in common, and both prepare students for graduate study in mathematics. Furthermore, the Bachelor of Arts degree emphasises mathematical applications in the arts, humanities, and social sciences. There are numerous opportunities available with a Bachelor of Science degree. Actuarial science, applied analysis, computational mathematics, graduate studies, systems analysis, and teaching are among the alternatives available. The course will take three years to complete.

#### Scope

• In addition to an undergraduate degree in Mathematics, this degree programme allows highly qualified and career-oriented students to get instruction in statistics focused on building data analysis abilities and exploring basic areas of applied statistics at the graduate level.
• The degree programme piques students’ interest in mathematics, computers, and quantitative elements of science, preparing them for jobs as statistical analysts in industry and government.
• They can pursue higher education and research in the subject of mathematics, as well as work as a teacher or lecturer in a variety of institutions and colleges after obtaining higher degrees.

#### List of Top B.An in Mathematics colleges In India

 College Name Affiliated to Cut off Indraprastha College for Women University of Delhi 94 L.S.Raheja College University of Mumbai 64.80 Fergusson College Autonomous 91 St Andrews College University of Mumbai 90
##### Average Fees For BA Mathematics –

From INR 1 to INR 3 lakhs per annum

Admission Criteria for BA Mathematics – Candidates must have a 12th-level pass certificate from a recognized board of education to be considered for admission to the programme. Admission from Science and Commerce programmes with Mathematics subject requires a minimum aggregate score of 50%. In some colleges, admission is based on academic merit or entrance examinations.

##### Types of Jobs After BA Mathematics

Accountant, teacher, researcher, statistician, and aerodynamics expert, to name a few professions.

##### Average Placements after BA Mathematics

Colleges and universities, banks and financial institutions, private and public organisations, engineering firms, and research corporations are all examples of businesses.

### Top courses for Masters in Mathematics In India

#### Master of Science in mathematics ( Msc in mathematics)

M.Sc. (Master of Science) (Master of Science) Mathematics is a postgraduate mathematics programme. The course lasts two years and is divided into four semesters. The course’s major goal is to offer students an in-depth understanding of advanced applied mathematics and to prepare them for diverse research pursuits. M.Sc. students study advanced mathematical ideas. In the minds of the students, it incorporates mathematical thinking. This subject is offered by a number of schools and universities, including St. Xavier’s College, Alagappa University, St. Stephens College, and others. Distance learning institutes such as IGNOU, Periyar University, and others offer this subject.

#### Scope

In essence, Mathematics’ scope is both broad and promising. You can work as a Mathematician, Statistician, Teacher/Professor, Software Developer/Engineer, Sound Engineer, Financial Analyst, Investment Analyst, Meteorologist, Astronomer, Research Scientist, Data Scientist, Data Analyst, Game Designer, Chartered Accountant, and many other jobs after earning your M.Sc in Mathematics.

#### Top Colleges for Msc Mathematics in India

 College Affiliated to Cut off Miranda house University of Delhi 95.25 Hindu college University of Delhi 98 Madras Christian college Autonomous 94 Loyola College University of madras 96

##### Average Fees for Msc Mathematics

30,000 to 1,00,000 Per annum.

Admission Criteria for MSc Mathematics – Admission to the M.Sc. programme is competitive. In the months of March and April, the mathematics course begins. The application forms are available in both online and offline formats, and students will be notified via the University’s official website. The admission process for most universities is straightforward, and students are admitted based on their graduation grades. However, some universities will need students to take an additional entrance exam.

##### Types of Jobs after Msc Mathematics

Mathematics Specialist, Professor, Quantitative Risk Analyst, quantitative developer, Interest rate Trending Strategist.

##### Average Placements after Msc Mathematics –

Students with a master’s degree in mathematics have a variety of professional options. Following the completion of the course, you may pursue further education. You might also look for work in a variety of fields. We’ve included a few of the most common fields where M.Sc. Mathematics graduates can find work:

• Companies in the aerospace industry
• Market research companies
• Firms that conduct research and development
• Firms that conduct economic research

### Master of Arts in Mathematics

MA Mathematics, or Master of Arts in Mathematics, is a two-year postgraduate degree with a focus on mathematics. This is a curriculum for students interested in pursuing a career in statistics, research, or teaching, among other fields. A more application-based teaching style is used in this curriculum. Theorems, algorithms, algebra, and calculus are only a few of the topics covered.

#### Scope

MA Mathematics provides a lot of potential for students who want to work in research, statistics, accounting, and other fields. Let’s take a closer look at the MA Mathematics employment opportunities:

• It will serve as a foundation for further mathematics education and research, such as PhD and M.Phil degrees.
• A student may apply for the UGC-NET or JRF test after obtaining this degree. Success in these exams is stated to qualify a student for teaching, research, and study, as well as provide a plethora of valuable and good possibilities for the candidates.
• Other accounting and statistics degrees, such as the ICWA, and so on, require an MA Mathematics degree.
• After completing the MA Mathematics degree programme, many job prospects in statistics, actuarial sciences, mathematical modelling, cryptography, computer sciences, and other subjects become available.

#### Top Colleges In India for MA mathematics

 College Affiliated to Cut Off St Stephens College University of Delhi 95 Mahatma Gandhi University – 97 Miranda House University of Delhi 96 Hindu College University of Delhi 94

##### Average Fees

20,000 – 200000 Per annum

##### Admission Criteria for MA mathematics

A bachelor’s degree in mathematics is the most fundamental requirement for admission to any college offering a master’s degree in mathematics. In addition, a minimum aggregate score of 55% would aid in the selection process.

The majority of admissions are made through entrance examinations. Some of the leading colleges that provide admission to the programme through entrance exams are LSR, St. Stephen’s College, Sri Venkateswara College, and others.

##### Types of Jobs After MA Mathematics

Teachers, statisticians, loan officers, researchers, demographers, accountants, and others are among those who work in this field.

##### Average Placements after MA in mathematics –
• Engineering Firms
• Research and Development Firms
• Insurance Agencies
• Schools
• Banks and Investment Firms
• Central/State Government Departments
• Colleges/Universities

### Top Courses for Doctorate in mathematics in India

#### PhD Mathematics

A PhD in Mathematics is a course that leads to a doctorate in mathematics. Structure, space, quantity, and change are all studied in this field. It looks for patterns and makes new hypotheses. Scholars should submit their ‘thesis’ after completing their PhD, and they will be awarded the degree they are pursuing. The programme lasts a minimum of three years and a maximum of five or six years.

M.Sc. Degree in Mathematical or Physical Sciences/ B. Tech. is the minimal credentials and other qualifying criteria for admission. Candidates from any discipline are welcome to apply, and some institutes provide direct admission to graduate students who have excelled in their studies. A PhD in mathematics is a broad-based programme that includes a research thesis and a minimum course credit requirement.

#### Scope

This doctoral programme provides graduates with the opportunity to develop advanced research abilities and significantly expand their knowledge in the field of mathematics. PhD in Mathematics programme prepares students to tackle a wide range of issues using theoretical and computational research approaches, from the most abstract to the most practical.

The program’s main focus is on conducting extensive research in core areas of mathematics, culminating in a PhD dissertation that allows students to hone their skills in presenting and teaching mathematics and its applications.

• This curriculum prepares students to keep up with the rapidly growing frontiers of knowledge while also providing research training pertinent to the country’s current social and economic goals.
• It learns how to compose a solid research report and how to show facts in a graphical format.
• Accountancy and commercial services, banking, investing and insurance, government, and public administration are all options for them.
• They can work as teachers and lecturers in schools and colleges/universities, respectively; to work as a college lecturer, they must pass the NET exam and follow the UGC rules.

#### Top colleges for MA in mathematics in India

 College Affiliated to Cut off Indian Institute of Science, Banglore – 97 Banaras Hindu University – 95 Aligarh Muslim university – 93 Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College – 96
##### Average Fees –

5000 Rs – 100000 Rs Per annum.

##### Admission Criteria for PhD in mathematics

The majority of PhD mathematics programmes admit candidates based on their graduate degree level examination results. Some institutes, on the other hand, administer entrance exams to assess a candidate’s abilities.

##### Average Placements after PhD in Mathematics

Banks, Investment Firms, Commerce, Business, Colleges, Universities, R&D Firms, Indian Civil Services, Inventory Management, Insurance Agencies, Statistics (e.g. Ernst & Young, Tiger Analytics, TCS Innovation Lab, Weizmann Institute, etc.)

#### What to do after PhD In mathematics?

PhD is sometimes misunderstood as a training programme for becoming a university professor. True to some extent, yet a PhD’s purview extends beyond academia. In comparison to the number of PhD candidates, the proportion of PhDs joining academia is not very high. The employment situation in India and other foreign countries is rapidly changing, forcing PhD candidates to rethink their plans to enter academia. PhD graduates are now looking for alternate careers in fields such as writing, research, investment banking, law, and many more.

##### Types of Jobs after PhD in mathematics –

Operational researcher, data scientist, financial risk analyst, systems/business analyst, communications engineer, meteorologist, market researcher, patent attorney, or technical writer are just a few of the jobs that would benefit from a PhD. Mathematician, Statistician, Loan Officer, Accountant, Economist, Researcher, Personal Banker, Cryptographer, Demographer, Professor, etc.

## Mathematics – Job Roles and Levels

Mathematics is a fantastic educational and professional choice for anyone who enjoys crunching numbers and solving complicated calculations and logical riddles. It is an exciting and challenging topic that aids in the development and refinement of problem-solving and logical reasoning abilities.

These abilities also enable you to comprehend the complexities of real-world situations and solve them utilizing a variety of mathematical reasoning and statistical modeling strategies.

All of the highest-paying careers are related to mathematics, either directly or indirectly. Jobs in mathematics are accessible in both the public and private sectors. Math graduates may work in government departments, semi-government, PSUs, research organizations, technical branches, banking sectors, colleges, and universities in the government sector.

Aside from academic professions, trained mathematicians can find work at the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), National Aeronautic Limited (NAL), and Society for Electronic Transaction and Security (SETS) for a decent salary and benefits package (SETS). Specific disciplines such as financial mathematics and computing, as well as mathematics, offer excellent chances.

### JOB ROLES

#### Operation Research Analyst

Operations research analysts are high-level problem solvers that produce solutions that help firms and organizations operate more efficiently and cost-effectively using advanced approaches such as optimization, data mining, statistical analysis, and mathematical modeling.

##### Duties
• Data from current operating systems is collected and analyzed in order to develop decision-assistance software.
• Getting feedback from employees or people with specialized knowledge who can help solve operational issues.
• Defining operational difficulties, developing ways to examine the problem, and developing realistic solutions using statistical analysis or simulations.
• Defining data needs, acquiring and validating information, and formulating problem-solving strategies using judgement and statistical tests.
• Performing tests to check that the models are accurate.
• Providing solutions to leadership teams and assisting with decision-making.
• Creating reports based on your observations and suggestions.
• To plan, control, and review huge projects, time and cost networks are being developed.
• Creating financial systems, logistical systems, and manufacturing schedules, among other commercial methods and procedures.
• Analysts in operations research advise managers and other decision-makers on the best way to address a problem. Advanced mathematical and analytical methodologies are used by operations research analysts to assist firms in solving problems and making better decisions.
##### Average Salary
• Beginners: 4L LPA
• Mid-Experienced: 7L LPA
• Highly Experienced: 20L LPA

#### Mathematician

Mathematicians look at numbers and data to come up with new ways to solve difficulties in business. They carry out complex mathematical calculations in order to grasp the practical implications of mathematical principles and ideas.

Mathematicians also create statistical models for analyzing complex data in order to assist businesses in making data-driven decisions. Government agencies, medical and pharmaceutical corporations, scientific research institutes, and IT firms are the most common employers.

##### Duties
• Recognize links between mathematical principles that were previously unknown.
• In sectors such as business, engineering, and science, create models to tackle practical problems.
• Create computer programmes and computational procedures.
• Model inferences should be compared against observations or experiments.
• In fields like algebra and geometry, develop new mathematical theories, concepts, and rules.
• In science, business, and engineering, use theories to solve problems.
• Determine what information is required to answer specific queries or solve specific difficulties.
• Interpret the facts and draw conclusions from your findings.
##### Average Salary
• Beginners: 4 Lakhs (Lakhs Per Annum)
• Mid-Experienced: 5 Lakhs (Lakhs Per Annum)
• Highly Experienced: 6 Lakhs (Lakhs Per Annum)

#### DATA SCIENTIST

Data scientists work to turn raw data into actionable information for businesses. They use statistical tools and advanced Data Science techniques like data mining, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning to extract important information that can drive innovation from enormous volumes of data from many sources.

In other words, they convert data into usable information that businesses and organizations can utilize to improve operations, raise profitability, improve customer-brand connection, and so on. Data scientists are in high demand because they have the ideal mix of mathematical, technological, analytical, and business communication skills.

##### Duties
• Begin the discovery process by asking the correct questions.
• Gather information
• Cleanse and process the data
• Compile and save data
• Data inquiry and exploratory data analysis are the first steps in the data analysis process.
• Pick one or more potential models and algorithms to work with.
• Use data science approaches like machine learning, statistical modelling, and artificial intelligence to solve problems.
• Evaluate and improve outcomes
• Inform stakeholders about the final outcome.
• Make changes in response to criticism
• Use the same steps to address a new problem.
##### Average Salary
• Beginners: 5 Lakhs (Lakhs Per Annum)
• Mid-Experienced: 10 Lakhs (Lakhs Per Annum)
• Highly Experienced: 20 Lakhs (Lakhs Per Annum)

#### CHARTERED ACCOUNTANT

Chartered accountants serve as advisors to their clients, providing sound financial guidance. Taxation, account auditing, financial reporting, forensic accounting, corporate finance, business recovery, insolvency, and other services are among the services they provide.

Auditing, taxation, financial, and general management are all areas of business and finance where chartered accountants work. Some work in public practice, while others work in the private sector, while yet others work for government agencies.

CAs not only handle financial and accounting procedures for their clients, but they also assess systems to analyze risks, keep accounting records, set budgets, and advise clients on how to enhance their businesses. Public accounting firms, eCommerce enterprises, non-profit organizations, and sole proprietorships are all common places for chartered accountants to work.

##### Duties
• Oversee the accounting team’s responsibilities.
• Set up accounting procedures and systems.
• Prepare financial reports once a month.
• Control the general register’s master data.
• Examine and approve online banking transactions.
• Ensure that you are in conformity with the state revenue service.
• Assist with accounting and reporting on a regular basis.
• Oversee the entire financial process.
• Make a budget report for your expenses.
##### Average Salary
• Beginners: 6L LPA
• Mid-Experienced: 7L LPA
• Highly Experienced: 10L LPA

#### MATHS PROFESSOR

Professors of mathematics work at colleges and universities. They educate pupils in statistics, algebra, geometry, calculus, and advanced-level maths like data analysis, data mining, and data structures, among other topics.

Professors deliver classroom lectures, create presentations and experiments for students, assign project work, and evaluate and grade students based on their projects and exam results. Math professors also do their own research and write articles in academic journals and books to contribute to the math community.

To become a mathematics professor, a candidate must first get a master’s degree in mathematics. After completing your postgraduate studies, you can sit for the NET/SET examinations, which would qualify you for a position as a lecturer in government colleges if you pass. To become a Professor, you must complete a PhD in Mathematics.

##### Duties
• Planning and presenting lessons to help pupils better comprehend and apply mathematical topics.
• Creating and delivering educational materials including notes, assignments, and tests.
• Obtaining the necessary materials and supplies for the lessons.
• Assuring a safe and suitable learning environment in the classroom.
• Grading assignments and quizzes as soon as possible.
• Quizzes and final exams keep you on your toes.
• Keeping track of and reporting on the progress of students.
• Attending parent and staff meetings.
##### Average Salary
• Beginners: 4L LPA
• Mid-Experienced: 5L LPA
• Highly Experienced: 6L LPA

### Q1) Which course is better for mathematics?

There are several courses available for mathematics and most of them are a better option for mathematics. Here are some of the best courses that you will come across –

• #### Associate’s Degrees are the first level of education

This is available in two-year colleges. An applicant must have a high school diploma or a GED in order to participate in this course. It consists of a mix of general education and math courses. Students will get an Associate of Arts or Associate of Science degree upon completion.

• #### Bachelor’s Degrees are the second level of education.

It leads to a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science in mathematics for those who choose it. To enroll in this course, they must have a high school diploma or a GED. This course prepares individuals to teach arithmetic to students in grades K-12.

• #### Master’s Degrees are the third level of education.

Candidates who intend to teach the topic in a 2-year or 4-year college or university should enroll in this programme. It is also an option for high school math teachers who want to improve their credentials and experience in the field. Admission to this course requires a bachelor’s degree.

Candidates who want to pursue further education in the area or pursue a PhD afterward can pursue a Master of Science in Mathematics, which takes two years to complete.

• #### PhD in Mathematics

This course prepares students to work as academics and researchers. To apply for this programme, you must have a Master’s degree. After completing this course, they will be experts in specialized fields such as engineering or computer science. The programme takes 4-6 years to complete and includes written and oral tests at the end.

### Q2) What are all maths courses in order?

In India, All the courses in mathematics go in this particular order.

1. Mathematics taught in school is pretty simple mathematics and is a combination of Algebra & Geometry.
2. After 10th the levels for mathematics increase a bit as mathematics and statistics are in combination along with derivatives, now derivatives that is differentiation and integration both are quite hard and that’s a level up for the students.
3. Once you have successfully cleared 10+2 Examinations there are various courses available for specialization in mathematics. One must choose these courses only if they have a genuine interest and passion for it. These are the following courses to look up for mathematics. B.A. (Mathematics), B.A. (hons.), B.Sc (Mathematics), B.Sc (Applied mathematics), B.Sc (Hons.), B.Com (Mathematics) .
4. After the bachelors you can be eligible for masters in the mathematics specialization, these are the following courses after bachelors, M.A (Mathematics), M.Sc (Mathematics), M.Sc (Hons), M.Sc (Applied Mathematics), M.Sc (Applications of Mathematics), M.Tech (Applied and Computational Mathematics), M.Phil (Mathematics), M.Phil (Applied Mathematics).
5. The PhD that is the doctorate degree is the last step in pursuing mathematics as a specialization. One can opt for these courses after completing their masters.Ph.D (Mathematics), Ph.D (Applied Mathematics), Ph.D (Mathematics and Statistics), Ph.D (Mathematics and Humanities and Social Sciences)

### Q3) What to study to become a mathematician?

For many people, working in the field of mathematics is a source of pride. To become a mathematician, you must be enthusiastic about the subject.

#### Step 1

Higher Education: If you want to be a mathematician, the first topic you should study in 10+2 is mathematics.

#### Step 2

Bachelor’s Degree in Mathematics: After passing the 12th grade with Mathematics as a subject, you should pursue a Bachelor’s degree in mathematics.

A bachelor’s degree in mathematics is required to begin a career in mathematics. Any approved university can provide a bachelor’s degree.

#### Step 3

Master’s Degree in Mathematics: Following your Bachelor’s degree, you should pursue a Master’s degree in Mathematics. You must decide if you want to pursue Applied Mathematics or Theoretical Mathematics while pursuing it.

#### Step 4

Obtain a Doctorate in Mathematics: The most crucial stage in becoming a mathematician is now. A Doctoral degree in Mathematics, sometimes known as a PhD in Mathematics, is normally required to master the area of mathematics or to become a Mathematician.

Thus, following these 4 steps will make you a mathematician.

List of Universities offering Mathematics