Genetics and its scope

What is genetics?

The branch of science that is mainly associated or deals with the studies related to genes is genetics. Moreover, it also deals with the basics of genetics such as variation and heredity that the genes control. Earlier, scientists were of the opinion that genetics and heredity are not interrelated. But, later on, with advancements in technology and research of various scientists, opinions related to genetics started seeing evolution. One of the most renowned and famous names is Gregor Johann Mendel.

Gregor Johann Mendel, who associated himself with genetics for a lifetime was a Moravian scientist. He started his research works by the end of the 19th century. Moreover, he also successfully conducted some experiments to justify his findings related to genetics. But, the scientists did not approve his experiments in the way they should have.

Focusing mainly on “trait inheritance”, Mendel thoroughly studies genetics and performed experiments that were ahead of that time. It was too tough and complex for the then scientists who ended up rejecting Mendel’s proposal. But that could not stop Mendel from accomplishing what he wanted. Therefore, he laid down the basics that are related to genetics. The main reason behind it was to ensure that future generation scientists have enough of knowledge about genetics so that they can conduct advanced experiments.

Table of Contents

Basics of genetics:

Considering trait inheritance and molecular inheritance as primary principles of genetics, modern genetics has expanded recently. Though modern genetics consider them to be the primary principles, they have expanded their knowledge related to genetics. It is so because they want to extend their experiments by involving modern technology that can study genetic behavior. Earlier, only learning the basics of genetics was a great deal. The main reason behind it is the microscopic nature of the genes.

However, people in earlier times were not very comfortable putting forward any research related to microscopic studies. It is so because they did not know properly to use a microscope. Therefore, they also could not believe scientists who had the courage to work on microscopic entities. But, with the advancement in technology, apart from knowing the structure of the genes, we can find other things too. Nowadays, we can easily conduct experiments that can help us to know about the genetic behavior of a particular gene.

Some of the external factors that affect genetic behavior are:-

1) The outer environment

2) Pressure

3) Temperature

4) Organisms reaction to a particular phenomenon

Interestingly, both the intracellular as well as extracellular environment has the capacity to control genetic behavior. These factors are very much capable of controlling the entire process of transcription. For instance, if we put an ear of corn that is genetically identical in two different kinds of conditions; one in temperate and another in arid, differences in heights will be prominent.

Thus, in this way, we can conduct various experiments to see the differences or variations in genetic behavior. Moreover, we can also conclude that genetic behavior depends on various factors.

History of Genetics:-

People for a long time are a believer of the inheritance of traits. It is so because of the resemblance that the consecutive generations share. But, people did not know the controlling factor behind it. With the passage of time, people came to know about genetics.

Later on, people adopted the idea of selective breeding with the help of genetics. However, thanks to Gregor Johann Mendel, many wrong assumptions about genetics received clearance. Therefore, to some extent, we can say that Mendel introduced modern genetics even though he suffered rejection initially.

Interestingly, it was not only Mendel whom genetics successfully managed to draw towards it. Much before Mendel, there was someone who had an eye for genetics. He was a Hungarian noble residing in Kőszeg namely Imre Festetics. He put forward a book titled The genetic law of nature and added rules that define genetic inheritance. The second law that he forwarded resembles that of Mendel’s second law. However, in his third law, he focused on the principles related to mutation.

However, Charles Darwin also mentioned genetics in his book “The Origin of Species”. The term he used for genetics was “blending inheritance”. According to Darwin, the inherited traits that smoothly bend together end up transferring the blended traits to the next generation. But modern genetics has successfully found another term to explain Darwin’s theory of blending inheritance-action of multiple genes having quantitative effects.

Another theory that received a little bit of approval was the “inheritance of acquired characters”. According to this theory, the offsprings inherit only the strongest traits from their parents. In other words, parents tend to pass only the strongest traits that they have, to their offspring so that they can have better survival opportunities.

Mendelian as well as Classical Genetics:

Associated with the initiation of modern genetics, Mendel studied genetics extensively in plants. He opted to put his focus on Plant Hybridization and conducted research on it. Moreover, he also published a paper related to plant hybridization titled “Experiments on Plant Hybridization”. It was presented as well as illustrated for the first time in the year 1865. The location was Society for Research in Nature, Brünn.

Mendel was keen to work on pea plants and therefore, he decided to perform plant hybridization in pea plants. Moreover, he also tried to relate his experimental results with mathematics. Thus, he put forwarded genetic equations mathematically and from a mathematical point of view. Mendel was of the opinion that heredity can never be acquired and need to be particulate. He also believed that he was capable of explaining inheritance patterns with simple ratios as well as rules.

Mendel’s works were left unwanted and unvalued till 1900 when some of the intelligent scientists that were ahead of their time rediscovered the works. Hugo de Vries, along with his companions rediscovered the works of Mendel and re-evaluated them. However, they did not coin the term genetics as the credit goes to William Bateson. Five years later Mendel’s work had been rediscovered; William Bateson suggested the term “genetics” that received approval.

Unfortunately, Mendel got recognition after his death.  But, after his works got publicity, scientists were eager to know the nature of the cells that helps in inheritance. Various scientists from time to time conducted various experiments regarding this. One of such scientists were Nettie Stevens who conducted experiments on mealworm. Therefore, she arrived at a conclusion that females harbor only the X chromosome but males own both X and Y chromosomes.

Molecular genetics:

We all know today that genes exist on chromosomes (comprises of both DNA and protein). But, earlier, scientists were unaware which of the two factors contribute to inheritance. Therefore, in the year 1928, Frederick Griffith worked on transformation and discovered it. According to this experiment, dead bacteria are capable of transferring genetic material to other bacteria that are still alive.

Then again, in the year 1944, another experiment took place (the Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment) which proved that DNA is associated with the transformation of genetic information. In the year 1952, the Hershey-Chase experiment also added to the information that DNA is responsible that residing in the viruses. These viruses are capable of infecting bacteria.

Defining genetics without mentioning the names of James Watson and Francis Crick is impossible. The instrument they used for conducting their experiments is X-ray Crystallography that was also used by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins. After conducting experiments, they arrived at the conclusion that the structure of DNA is helical. They said that they had seen the shape of DNA to be like that of a corkscrew.

In the double-helical model, there are basically two strands of DNA that remain twisted and coiled around each other. In the structure, the nucleotides tend to point in an inward direction. If the strands tend to separate, there is a possibility of constructing new partner strands depending on the sequence of the old strand. Therefore, we can say that DNA harbors semi-conservative nature. In this semi-conservative phenomenon, one new strand of DNA arises from an original parent strand.

Inheritance of Features:

According to the most basic level of genetics, inheritance is possible due to the transfer of heritable units that are discrete. These discrete heritable units are the genes that pass from the parents to the offspring. Mendel was the first scientist to observe this phenomenon. Moreover, he also studied the segregation of pea plants after which he found out the existence of genes.

While Mendel was studying and experimenting with pea plants, he drew out a lot of new factors. He initially observed the variation in the coloring pattern of the flowers present in pea plants. He noticed that the flowers were either purple or white but never an intermediate. Thus, he found out that the same gene can comprise different as well as discrete versions. And these discrete versions of the same gene are the alleles.

Since pea is diploid by nature, each individual plant has two copies of each gene. One of the copies they inherit is from their paternal gene and another from the maternal gene. We humans also have this same pattern to some extent. If both the copies of the same allele are present in the gene, it is homozygous. Similarly, if the alleles are located in different positions of a given gene, it is heterozygous.

Genotype is the entire set of alleles of a particular organism. However, on the other hand, phenotype defines the observable traits. In the case of organisms that are heterozygous, one of the alleles is dominant and the other recessive. Dominant alleles shadow the effect of the alleles that are recessive. However, there are some notable fewer exceptions. Not all the alleles are capable enough to show complete dominance.

Multiple gene interactions:

Basically, we all know that organisms harbor thousands of genes inside their own body. Particularly, in the case of sexually reproducing organisms, their genes tend to assort independently of each other. This is Mendel’s second law or “the law of independent assortment”. In simple words, this law defines the shuffling of alleles of different genes from parents to offspring. But, there is a different range of combinations available and therefore, the phenotype is full of variation.

Though we all know that the genes have the tendency to assort independently, but at the same time, not all genes undergo independent assortment. Those genes that fail to assort independently explain genetic linkage. Sometimes, the gene interactions are also quite confusing and uncertain. They may end up interacting in a way that the same trait gets influenced. In the case of Blue-eyed Mary, a gene is present that determines the flower color. The color can be either blue or magenta.

However, another gene tends to control if the flowers will have colors at all or are white. If the plant has two copies of the only white allele, then the flowers will show a white phenotype. And this white color will not be dependent on either the first gene has blue or magenta alleles. This interaction is epistasis and the second gene remains epistatic to the first one.

An inheritance that is molecular-based:-

The main and ultimate basis of molecular inheritance is Deoxyribonucleic acid, also called DNA. There are basically four types of nucleotides present in DNA and are: – a) Adenine b) Guanine c) Thymine and d) Cytosine.  Genetic information is stored and carried by the nucleotides. Moreover, the genes also remain present along the chain of DNA as stretches of sequence.

DNA is normally double-stranded and remains coiled always. However, there is a proper rule of the pairing of nucleotides within the double-stranded DNA. Generally, Adenine shows pairing with Thymine, and Cytosine pairs with Guanine. In the case of RNA, Adenine pairs with Uracil because Thymine is absent in RNA. Each of the two strands of DNA harbors all the necessary information and this structural organization of DNA form the physical basis for inheritance.

The main location of DNA is nucleus of the cells but the scientist namely Ruth Sager discovered genes that are non-chromosomal and present outside the nucleus. In the case of plants, these remain present in the chloroplasts as well as in the mitochondria of other organisms. Though these genes are non-chromosomal in structure, they can pass from parents during sexual reproduction. Interestingly, these genes are capable of controlling a wide range of hereditary characteristics.

Scope of genetics:

Genetics is the branch of biological science that deals with hereditary conditions as well as various diseases related to it. Therefore, we can say that genetics has tremendous importance both nationally as well as internationally. Thus, those students who desire to study genetics have quite a broad scope. The students can travel abroad to study genetics too. In this way, they can attain the opportunity to work in the most advanced laboratories of the world.

Since genetics has not left any aspect of life to touch, it has established its application in various fields. Besides studying diseases related to heredity, students can also involve themselves in developmental projects in the field of pharmaceutical as well as agricultural products. The study of genetics has also helped in the research related to cancer, unborn defects and many more.

With the help of proper DNA sampling and observations, genetics can be studied extensively. In order to be professional in the field of genetics, basic conception and proper knowledge about the genes is compulsory. However, there are some essential duties that the genetic institutes allot the professionals. Some of such works include detection of genotypes, maintaining proper records of genetic ailments as well as employing mutation techniques.

Besides the above-mentioned duties, the professionals also spend most of the time of their lives inside the lab. Also, they conduct various experiments from time to time and remain involved in the preparation of reports. Therefore, they deliver the assigned reports to either clinicians or clients (patients).

Eligibility criteria to study genetics in India:-

The first and foremost eligibility to study genetics is to have the enthusiasm to learn things related to genetics. Since it is quite complicated and requires a lot of patience, many students opt out of this course due to a lack of patience. Therefore, lots of patience and endurance are a must. Moreover, if a student desires to build a career in genetics, then he/she needs to have primary subjects as Physics, Chemistry and Biology in class 12th.

Top colleges that provide Genetic courses in India:

There are various colleges that extend Genetic courses. However, many of them have failed to receive recognition from Government and are not NAAC Accredited. The degrees from such colleges are of no use and the student won’t have any job opportunities in the future. Therefore, government-recognized educational institutions are important and the students should enroll themselves into such institutions.

One can attain genetics course in two ways- as a three-year B.Sc course or four-year B.Tech in Genetic Engineering. Also, students can choose life sciences as well as biology courses to study at the undergraduate level. After that, they can shift anytime to the Genetics field in their Master’s degree. The doctoral course (Ph.D.) in genetics field is also available.

Some of the colleges that extend courses related to Genetics are:

Kristu Jayanti College, Bengaluru

St. Ann’s College for women, Hyderabad

University of Calicut, Calicut

Institute of Genetic Engineering, Kolkata

Dolphin PG College of Science and Agriculture, Punjab

The Oxford College of Science, Bengaluru

Kalinga University, Chattisgarh

These colleges not only provide Post-graduate but also undergraduate courses in Genetics.

1) Kristu Jayanti College:

Introduction:

Came into effect in the year 1999, BODHI NIKETAN TRUST manages this educational institute. Also, it is one of the best colleges in the country that provides courses related to genetics. An affiliate of Bengaluru North University, this college is also Government-recognized. Further, it has also received NAAC Accreditation with grade “A” in the year 2015. University Grants Commission (UGC) has also recognized this college under the category 2(f) and 12 (B).

Moreover, UGC has also accorded this college the autonomous status in the year 2013. Also, this college has received various awards from time to time due to its contribution in the field of Education.

History of Kristu Jayanti College:-

One of the main objectives of this college is to impart quality education to the students that are a part of this college. In the late 1990s, people of Bengaluru realized the lack of an educational institution in the northern part of the city. It was so because the southern, as well as eastern parts of the city, had ample of educational institutions already established. Thus, in order to meet the demands of the people, the Government of Karnataka decided to construct an educational institution in the Kothanur region.

When the college started, there was only one course and nine students. There were only three faculty members who used to teach the students. Gradually, with the passage of time, the number of students changed to 8000 and number of courses to 29 (undergraduate). Additionally, 16 PG programmes and 3 PG Diplomas were also introduced. Also, this college has successfully established four recognised research centres in its premises. The research centre comprises of fields such as Bio-Technology, Commerce, Psychology as well as Management.

Basic amenities:

This college is an ideal institution to study genetics because of its basic amenities. It has all the basic facilities required in a campus for the safety and security of the students.  Some of the facilities include emergency medical services, uninterrupted Wi-Fi services, proper transportation, clean and green campus etc.

a) Medical emergencies: The college administration tends to care for each and every student. Hence, they care about both physical as well as mental well-being of the students.  Not only students but the staffs also receive all kind of care as well as importance. Moreover, the college administration has tried every way possible to ensure physical as well as mental well-being of each and every member of the college.

In case of emergency medication, the authorities have managed to tie-up with Regal Hospital for continuous medical support. Also, they have tied up Cratis Hospital for the same. Therefore, we can say that the authorities are extra cautious regarding medical services. Moreover, a medical officer remains present in the college premises every Tuesday. He enquires about the health of the students and staff and suggests them proper medications.

Needless to say but first-aid amenities are always present at each and every block of the college campus. Another advantage of this college is the arrangement of health care awareness every year. Both the College Administration and Students Union together arrange the health-care campaign to create awareness about various diseases. Not only that, the invited medical officers also suggests various preventive measures against diseases and the complications related to it.

b) Centre for Counselling:

Presence of a full-time counsellor is one of the biggest advantages of this college. We know that today’s youth are very much competitive and thrives for excellence. As a result, they take a lot of stress and become indecisive about their career options. Thus, they need a counsellor who can help them figure out the proper career opportunity for them.

Apart from counsellors, the faculty members are also extremely friendly and harbour a genuine attitude towards the students. Therefore, the students can also take suggestion from their faculty in career related matters. Though the college do not have any special women care cell, but it provides equal importance to the mental health of the female students too.

Lecturers across the country arrive at this college to attend the talk shows that the college authorities organize. They extend lectures about “Women and gynaecological issues”, “Women and atrocities”. Also, lectures on “Entrepreneurship” and “Trafficking” also take place. Some of the renowned lecturers of the country take part of the talk shows of this college.

Eligibility to study Genetics in Kristu Jayanti College:

For undergraduate courses, the basic eligibility is 10+2 or equivalent from a recognized University. Moreover, the student needs to have either Biology or Chemistry as compulsory subject.

Genetics has a tremendous scope in the field of research as well as development. Also, it associates itself with the conservation and utilization of plants, in-vitro conservation, in-situ conservation such as animal breeding.

Proper and detailed knowledge of genetics is very important for understanding genetics as well as related fields. Some of the related fields include cytology, embryology, molecular biology, physiology etc. Genetics tends to be the core or basic of biology. Thus, the administration has designed the course in a way so that the student can explore all the aspects of this course such as both theoretical and practical.

Admissions:

The students can enrol themselves into this college on the basis of their merit. However, the students need to go through the counselling process of this college. Also, the administration considers their scores in the qualifying examination. However, reservation takes place according to the Government rules and regulations and candidates belonging to reserved categories receive relaxation.

A minimum of 40% marks in 10+2 is compulsory for admissions into an undergraduate course in Genetics. Also, the compulsory subjects are Mathematics/ Physics/ Computer Science/ Statistics. Apart from the performance of the students in 10+2, they also need to perform well in counseling and personal interview.

Degrees offered: Undergraduate, Post-graduate, PG Diploma

Top courses: B.Com (General, Professional, Tourism and Travel Management); B.Sc ( Genetics, Biotechnology, Microbiology, Physics, Statistics);M.Sc (Psychology, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Computer Science, Microbiology)

Average fee structure: INR 50,000- 2,00,000

2) St. Ann’s College for women, Hyderabad

Introduction:

Came into effect in the year 1981, St. Ann’s College for women became one of the trusted colleges of Hyderabad. This college is specially constructed only for women by understanding the demands. An affiliate of Osmania University, this college is Government-recognized. Moreover, this college is NAAC (National Assessment and Accreditation Council) with grade “A”.

Smt. Thatipatri Gnanamma was the founder of this college who dedicated her entire life to enlighten the poor girls. Also, she was very concerned about the education of women and thus, founded this college.

Awards and Recognitions:

Since the time this college came into effect, it has performed exceptionally and thus, bagged many awards. Apart from various gold medals, this college has top ranker in every stream, be it B.A, B.Sc and B.Com.

Besides gold medals and top rankers, this college also has a maximum number of silver medals. The students of this college bag silver medals every year for their excellent academic performances.

Academics:

This college is one of the best colleges to study genetics for its experienced faculty and nice campus. The campus is clean and green and also has all the basic amenities essential for a student. When the college started, it had only two courses but with the passage of time, numbers have changed. The number of courses now stands at more than 30, covering various streams.

Besides, there is also an IGNOU Study Centre in the premises and the courses offered are totally free of cost. However, there is no offline mode for the conduction of these courses. Thus, the model of education is online. Also, this college not only has traditional courses but it also has Skills as well as Career Oriented Courses.

Admissions:

The students can enrol themselves into this college on the basis of their merit. However, the students need to go through the counseling process of this college. Also, the administration considers their scores in the qualifying examination. However, reservation takes place according to the Government rules and regulations and candidates belonging to reserved categories receive relaxation.

A minimum of 40% marks in 10+2 is compulsory for admissions into an undergraduate courses in Genetics. Also, the compulsory subjects are Mathematics/ Physics/ Computer Science/ Statistics. Apart from the performance of the students in 10+2, they also need to perform well in counseling and personal interview. Most importantly, special preference is given to the students that belong to the Christian minority. Students from other communities are selected only if there are vacant seats available.

Degrees offered: Undergraduate

Top courses: B.A (English literature, Economics, History, Public Administration) ;B.Com (Accounting, Computer Applications, International Accounting and Finance); B.Sc (Botany, Zoology, Chemistry, Applied nutrition, Genetics, Microbiology)

Average fee structure: INR 17,500- 70,000

3) University of Calicut, Calicut

Introduction:

The largest University in Kerala, the University of Calicut came into effect in the year 1968. It is one of the oldest Universities as it was the second University that was constructed in Kerala. The main aim of this University is to excel their students in every aspects of life. Besides, it believes in quality education and inspires students to choose their career options wisely.

The University of Calicut is one of the promising and reliable Universities of the state because it focuses on the benefit of local people. Not only local people, but this educational institution also desires to benefit wider humanity. When the Government of Kerala decided to bifurcate the Kerala University, it leads to the birth of this institution.

According to the plan, four Post-graduate Departments of Kerala University was shifted to the new University (University of Calicut). Also, at present, there are more than 54 constituent colleges that have successfully spread across Kerala. A total of seven districts have received the share of such constituent colleges, particularly in the northern region.

The main motto of this University says “Nirmaya Karmana Sree”. Likewise, this University has faced various challenges from time to time and evolved over the years for the betterment of the students. Introducing unique and valuable courses in the education system and enrolling students to the courses was a difficult and challenging task. But, the University of Calicut has withstood all the difficulties and prospered well.

Academics:

Starting with only a few departments and small campus, the University of Calicut now proudly forwards more than 30 Post-graduate departments. Moreover, approximately 395 colleges are affiliated to this University at present. The administration of this University has traveled a long journey. Besides, it is a ray of hope that keeps on inspiring hundreds and thousands of young men and women of Kerala.

The Directorate of Admissions (DoA) came into effect in the year 2014. The main objective behind council establishment was to supervise the entire admission process in the Departments and affiliated colleges. It supervises all the centralized admissions taking place at UG, PG, M.Phil and Ph.D. programs. They check for transparency and systematic admissions that follow the rules related to reservation.

They focus primarily on the Centralised Admission Process (CAP) so that the students can opt for courses of their choice. Moreover, they put more emphasis on the online mode of application submission. It is so because online submissions are quite time-saving as well as cost-effective.

Admissions:

The duration of the undergraduate program in genetics (B.SC Genetics) is of three years. Moreover, it is a full-time course. The students can enrol themselves into this college on the basis of their merit. However, the students need to go through the counseling process of this college. Also, the administration considers their scores in the qualifying examination. However, reservation takes place according to the Government rules and regulations and candidates belonging to reserved categories receive relaxation.

A minimum of 40% marks in 10+2 is compulsory for admissions into undergraduate courses in Genetics. Also, the compulsory subjects are Physics and Chemistry. Apart from the performance of the students in 10+2, they also need to perform well in the counseling process. However, the Directorate of Admissions (DoA) are always there to look into their queries and help them in the admissions.

Degrees offered: Undergraduate, Post-graduate, M.Phil, Ph.D.

Top courses: B.Sc (Plant Science, Biotechnology, Genetics, Geology, Geography, Physics, Zoology, Home Science, Multimedia and Web Technology); M.Sc ( Nutrition and Dietetics, Microbiology, Applied Chemistry, Zoology, Health and Yoga Therapy, Applied Plant Sciences, Information Technology, Statistics); M.Phil (Commerce, Botany, Political Science, Zoology, Comparative Literature);B.Tech (Aeronautical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Information Technology)

Average fee structure: INR 5,000-8,000

4) Institute of Genetic Engineering, Kolkata

Introduction:

Developed under the supervision of BIOTECH FOUNDATION, the Institute of Genetic Engineering came into effect in the year 2003. Not only it is a Government recognized institution but also it is one of the best colleges to study genetics in India. The presence of advanced laboratories and exceptional infrastructure has made this institution one of the desirable institutions of the country.

BIOTECH FOUNDATION is a dependable name that put emphasis on promotion of Education, Training and Research. It not only looks after the field of genetics but also biotechnology. Thus, it works in compilation with both genetic and biotechnology as both the departments is inter-related.

The main aim behind the establishment of this institute was to promote the study related to genetics. Since it is a newly emerged course, many people are still unaware of the course. Therefore, the Institute of Genetic Engineering focuses on publicizing the study and research related to genetics. The main reason behind it is to make people aware of the course so that people can develop an interest in this field and can work on it.

Initially, only undergraduate courses were available. But with the passage of time, new and developed courses added to the system. In the year 2003 when it started, there were only undergraduate courses in Biotechnology as well as Microbiology. It was then an affiliate of the University of Kalyani. Later, in the year 2004, the administration decided to add undergraduate courses in Genetics and Molecular Biology.

Academics:

However, in the year 2006, the Institute of Genetic Engineering end up joining Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad University of Technology. This institute was previously called WBUT. After this collaboration, the administration introduced Post-graduate courses in Genetic Engineering.

The batches passing each year have successfully cleared their exams with excellent and remarkable grades. Also, most of them has received placement with nice packages. Not only in India, but they have been also placed internationally. Thus, students who want to study genetics have scope not only inside the country but also outside. The students can grab the opportunity to work in the most advanced labs and conduct their research more efficiently.

The Institute of Genetic Engineering primarily focuses on preparing their students to face the global challenges. In this way, the students receive training to handle the toughest situations and strengthen their inner confidence. There are various effective measures that the institute has initiated. One of the main aims of this institution is to strengthen and develop the teaching staff.

Therefore, the administration continuously evaluates the staff and tries to improvise them for the betterment of the students. The administration has introduced effective learning through the Tutor-Ward system. Also, some of the remedial programs have been introduced for the students and to encourage them as well. Besides, the medium of instruction is always in English, at least in the undergraduate levels.

Research-related activities:

The Institute of Genetic Engineering, West Bengal also equally focuses on research-related activities. The researchers are always busy publishing their Journals or News Letters. Moreover, the administration keeps on arranging National as well as International Seminars from time to time to encourage the students. The conduction of seminars not only increases their confidence but also help them deal with numerous academic doubts and queries. In this way, this institute manages to keep the students engaged.

B.Sc in Genetics:

Since B.Sc in Genetics is a three-year course, the teaching staffs need to be hyperactive while imparting the basics of genetic to their students. It is so because genetics is quite a complicated subject. Thus, to cover up the entire genetics course within only three years is a huge challenging task. Therefore, the administration has decided to put up the laboratory works more than theoretical discussions.

Some of the paper names that the faculty imparts during the first semester are:

a) Biotechnology and Metabolism

b) Lab on Biochemistry and Metabolism

c) Cell Biology

d) Lab on Cell Biology

e) English communication

f) Computer Fundamentals

g) Environmental Science

Some of the paper names of the second semester are:

a) Principles of Transmission Genetics

b) Lab on Principles of Transmission Genetics

c) Chemistry-I

d) Lab on Chemistry-I

e) Population and evolutionary biology

f) Lab on Population and evolutionary biology

Some of the paper names of third semester are:

a) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genetics

b) Lab on Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genetics

c) Chemistry-II

d) Lab on Chemistry-II

e) Molecular Biology

f) Lab on Molecular Biology

Admissions:

The duration of the undergraduate program in genetics (B.SC Genetics) is of three years. Moreover, it is a full-time course. The students can enrol themselves into this college on the basis of their merit. However, the students need to go through the counseling process of this college. Also, the administration considers their scores in the qualifying examination. However, reservation takes place according to the Government rules and regulations and candidates belonging to reserved categories receive relaxation.

A minimum of 40% marks in 10+2 is compulsory for admissions into an undergraduate courses in Genetics. Also, the compulsory subjects are Physics/Chemistry/Biology/Mathematics. Moreover, if the students want to enrol in M.Sc (Genetics), they need to qualify undergraduate program in genetics with a minimum of 40% marks.

Degrees offered: Undergraduate, Post-graduate

Top courses: B.Sc (Molecular Biology, Genetics, Microbiology, Medical Laboratory Technology); M.Sc (Biotechnology, Genetics, Microbiology);BBA (Finance, Human Resource Management, Hospitality Management).

Average fee structure: For B.Sc – INR 90,000-3,00,000;

For M.Sc-INR 1 lakh-2.5 lakh

5) Dolphin PG College of Science and Agriculture, Punjab

Introduction:-

Came into effect in the year 2006, earlier, people used to call this institution as Dolphin (PG) College of Life Sciences. Yuva Education Society, New Delhi is one of the sponsors of this educational institution. Also, due to the presence of most advanced laboratories, it is one of the most trusted institutes to study genetics.

An affiliate of Punjabi University, Patiala, and the University Grants Commission (UGC) has also recognized this institution. Therefore, the students can easily rely on the authenticity of this institution to study genetics. Also, the rate of placement is quite high, thanks to the faculty and academic excellence. It is also NAAC (National Assessment and Accreditation Council) accredited with “A” grade.

Achievements:

Dolphin (PG) College of Science and Agriculture has achieved many milestones within a short span of time. It has successfully managed to provide excellence for eleven consecutive years. Its contribution is remarkable not only in the field of Life science but also Agricultural sciences equally. Besides, it has also bagged awards for Best Agricultural College as well as Best Fisheries College of Punjab.

Most importantly, it is the first college of entire Northern India that has introduced a demanding but unique course (B.Sc Agri-Business Management). Also, it has bagged Lifetime Achievement Award due to its capability to promote education of the National Environmental Science Academy. This academy is located in New Delhi.

Amenities:

All the basic amenities are present in this educational institution. The labs are well-maintained as well as well-equipped, accompanied by advanced instrumentation facilities such as HPLC and Fermenter. Besides, other advanced instruments such as Spectrophotometer, Polymerase Chain Reaction Machine, Gel imaging system, Electrophoresis apparatus and many more. Also, the faculty is highly qualified as well as experienced.

Uninterrupted internet facilities, clean and green campus, State of the art Conference Hall are other essential amenities of this institution. Besides, there are also provisions for Education loan and facilitation centres are present.

This institution is very strict and conscious about the safety of female students. Therefore, separate boy’s and girl’s hostels have been established in different campuses of the college. Interestingly, it was the first college to manage permission from the Government of Haryana for the conduction of a mock tests for 10+2 students.

Admissions:

The duration of the undergraduate program in genetics (B.SC Genetics) is of three years. Moreover, it is a full-time course. The students can enrol themselves into this college on the basis of their merit. However, the students need to go through the counseling process of this college. Also, the administration considers their scores in the qualifying examination. However, reservation takes place according to the Government rules and regulations and candidates belonging to reserved categories receive relaxation.

A minimum of 50% marks in 10+2 is compulsory for admissions into an undergraduate courses in Genetics. Also, the compulsory subjects are Physics/Chemistry/Biology/Mathematics. However, the Post-graduate course of Genetics is not available in this college. Thus, the students can only enrol themselves into the undergraduate course in Genetics.

Degrees offered: Undergraduate, Post-graduate

Top courses: B.Sc (Genetics, Anaesthesia Technology, Medical Radiography and Imaging Technology, Medical Laboratory Science, Cardiac Care technology); M.Sc (Medical Imaging Technology, Chemistry, Microbiology, Zoology); Bachelor of Tourism and Travel Management (BTTM)

Average fee structure: INR 35,000-2,00,000

6) The Oxford College of Science, Bengaluru

Introduction:

Under the supervision of The Oxford Educational Institutions, the Oxford College of Science came into being. Besides receiving fully Government recognition, this college is also NAAC (National Assessment and Accreditation Council) accredited with grade “A”.  An affiliate of the University of Bangalore, this educational institution is also University Grants Commission (UGC) recognized.

History:

Came into effect in the year 1994, this college only had twelve students when it started. The number of faculty members was only five. But, with the passage of time, this private educational institution managed to gain trust of the people and expanded in an unstoppable rate. Today, this college bagged rank 1 among the private colleges existing in Karnataka. It has bagged the same rank for three consecutive years (from 2007 to 2009). Moreover, it is counted among 25 best science colleges of India.

This is one of the best colleges to study genetics. It is so because within quite a short span of time, it has received recognition globally. Though it started its journey only with a few students and faculty members, today, the number of students has surpassed 3000.

Academics:

Presence of an independent placement cell is one of the top advantages or merits of this college. Also, the students can take help of the counsellors if they fail to choose the proper career option for them. Earlier only undergraduate courses were available but now both undergraduate and post graduate courses are available.

The college also has a training cell that trains the students for job interviews and placements. Therefore, we can say that an inner-directed placement system is present in this college. The placement faculty is always friendly and looks after the career of the students precisely. They filter out the best placement opportunities for the students and arrange interview sessions from various companies.

The main objective of the faculty members of the placement cell is to ensure high package placement of the students. Besides, they also impart a competitive edge among the students so that they can strongly compete in the placement process. Also, the faculty takes care of their self-esteem and groom them properly to develop their personality.

However, not all the courses have equal placement opportunities. Some of the courses have high placement opportunities such as B.Sc in Computer Science, Microbiology and M.Sc in Statistics. Bosch, Airtel, Himalaya, Quikr, Coca-Cola are some of the top companies that offer placement opportunities to the students of this college.

Admissions:

The duration of the undergraduate program in genetics (B.SC Genetics) is of three years. Moreover, it is a full-time course. The students can enrol themselves into this college on the basis of their merit. However, the students need to go through the counselling process of this college. Also, the administration considers their scores in the qualifying examination. However, reservation takes place according to the Government rules and regulations and candidates belonging to reserved categories receive relaxation.

A minimum of 50% marks in 10+2 is compulsory for admissions into undergraduate course in Genetics. Also, the compulsory subjects are Physics/Chemistry/Biology/Mathematics. However, the Post-graduate course of Genetics is not available in this college. Thus, the students can only enrol themselves into the undergraduate course in Genetics. Though the administration is thinking about introducing Master’s Degree in Genetics but nothing has been implemented yet.

Degrees offered:  Undergraduate, Post-graduate

Top courses: B.Sc (Genetics, Biotechnology, Microbiology, Computer Science, Biochemistry, Electronics, Fashion and Apparel Design); M.Sc (Microbiology, Chemistry, Biotechnology, Apparel Technology and Management, Physics, Mathematics, Statistics)

Average fee structure: INR 25,000-1,50,000

7) Kalinga University, Chhattisgarh

Introduction:

Emerging as a centre of excellence by late, Kalinga University is one of the trusted Universities across the country. It is much popular education institution of Central India. Located at the heart of Raipur city, this educational institution is rising as a bright star that imparts quality education. Raipur is the new capital city of Chhattisgarh and is an education hub. By late, it has emerged as one of the best educational place across the country. Earlier, the education facilities in this city used to be extremely poor and underrated.

The fourth planned city of India, Raipur, the new capital city of Chhattisgarh, is particularly known for its greenery. The city is extremely clean and green and the Government of Chhattisgarh has put emphasis on the hygiene of Raipur. Besides Kalinga University, this city also shelters top educational institutions such as IIT, National Law University, CIPET, NIT and AIIMS.

Came into effect in the year 2013, the Kalinga University has imparted education to more than 7000 students. Though it started with a few students and faculty members, it has been able to gain the trust of the people of the country. Therefore, parents across the country have depended on Kalinga University for the education of their students. Not only parents, but also the students have shown equal faith and dedication towards this University.

Academics:

The presence of senior and experienced professors makes this University much more appealing. Not only the faculty members are experienced but also they are highly qualified. Therefore, their years and years of experience of teaching, publications and research prove to be fruitful for the students. Also, the administration of Kalinga University invites Guest Lecturers from all over the World to encourage and enlighten their students. Thus, the students can approach the professors and the Guest Lectures for any sort of doubt clearance.

The friendly and supportive nature of the senior professors makes the environment of the University quite peaceful one. This educational institution has been constructed away from the crowd and noise of the city. Therefore, the students can focus better on their academics without any sort of external disturbance.

Infrastructure:

The World-class infrastructure of this educational institution is worth appreciating. Since this University has advanced labs accompanied by most advanced technology and instruments, it can be an ideal institution to study genetics. Besides focusing on academics of the students, this University also focuses on the mental well-being of the students equally. We can say that it is a complete University.

Admissions:

The duration of the undergraduate program in genetics (B.SC Genetics) is of three years. Moreover, it is a full-time course. The students can enrol themselves into this college on the basis of their merit. However, reservation takes place according to the Government rules and regulations and candidates belonging to reserved categories receive relaxation.

A minimum of 45% marks in 10+2 is compulsory for admissions into undergraduate course in Genetics. Also, the compulsory subjects are Physics/Chemistry/Biology/Mathematics. For enrolment into Post-graduate degree in Genetics, the University conducts entrance exams. Apart from the qualifying percentage (45%) in Undergraduate degree in Genetics, the student also needs to score valid marks in the entrance exam.

Degrees offered: Undergraduate, Post-graduate, Ph.D.

Top courses: B.Sc (Genetics, Computer Science, Interior Design, Fashion Design); B.Com (Banking and Finance, E-commerce); BBA (Marketing, Finance and Banking, Human Resource, Mass Media, Digital Marketing); M.Tech (Civil and Computer Science); M.Sc (Genetics, Interior Design, Fashion Design)

Average fee structure: INR 80,000-2,40,000

8) Jyoti Nivas College, Bengaluru

Introduction:

Ranked as the best arts college of the Bengaluru city, this college also imparts education in other streams such as science and commerce. The main aim of this college is to educate the students and prepare them to face global challenges. Therefore, the students of this college are not only academically bright but they also know to tackle problems related to their everyday life.

Earlier, it was only imparting education in arts stream. Gradually, it added up other streams such as science and commerce as well. However, the placement opportunities of the candidates of arts stream are lesser as compared to that of science and commerce. The admission can take place either on the basis of merit or entrance-based. Basically, the mode of admission depends on the course pattern.

Maximum package of 3 lakh per annum has been grabbed by the young and talented students of this college. Various top reputed companies such as MindTree, Wipro arrive at the campus with placement opportunities, accompanied by attractive packages.

Admissions:

The duration of the undergraduate program in genetics (B.SC Genetics) is of three years. Moreover, it is a full-time course. The students can enrol themselves into this college on the basis of their merit. However, reservation takes place according to the Government rules and regulations and candidates belonging to reserved categories receive relaxation.

A minimum of 45% marks in 10+2 is compulsory for admissions into an undergraduate course in Genetics. Also, the compulsory subjects are Physics/Chemistry/Biology/Mathematics. For enrolment into a Post-graduate degree in Genetics, a minimum of 45% of marks in the undergraduate level is mandatory, followed by a personal interview.

Degrees offered: Undergraduate, Post-graduate

Top Courses: B.A (Psychology, English, Public Administration, Journalism, History, Communicative English); B.Sc (Psychology, Genetics, Zoology, Mathematics, Physics, Electronics, Botany, Biochemistry); M.Sc (Organic Chemistry)

Average fee structure: INR 30,000-1,00,000

9) Jain University, Bengaluru

Introduction:

Originated from Sri Bhagwaan Mahaveer Jain College (SBMJC), this is one of the most reliable Deemed-to-be Universities of Bengaluru. Since it is a private institution, people earlier were skeptical of its authenticity. But, this University has proved to be the best University with its academic excellence and high rate of campus placements. It came into being in the year 2006.

Initially, this University started with only a few students and faculty members. At present, it offers 200 UG as well as PG courses covering all the streams such as commerce, sciences, humanities, engineering and management. However, the rate of placement is comparatively higher in engineering and management courses.

Student life:

Presence of both off-campus and on-campus accommodations is one of the advantages of this University. The accommodations are present at various locations within the city. Separate gender accommodations are available that also makes the campus quite safe for women. The University administration has entrusted the Hostel Management Division for the management of the hostel facilities. Also, the Hostel Management Division looks after any sort of problem faced by the students. The members are always eager to help the students in no time.

Admissions:

The students who desire to be a part of this University and study genetics need to clear the entrance exam called Jain Entrance Test (JET). The entrance exam is applicable for both undergraduate as well as Post-graduate students. Besides entrance exam, the minimum criteria for admission of undergraduate students are 45% of marks in 10+2 or equivalent.

Degrees offered: Undergraduate, Post-graduate, Ph.D, M.Phil

Top Courses: B.Sc (Genetics, Forensic Sciences, Biotechnology, Cancer Biology, Cardiac Technology, Nutrition and Dietetics, Gaming); B.Tech (Computer Science and Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Cloud Technology and Information Security, Aeronautical Engineering); M.Sc (Genetics, Forensic Sciences, Biotechnology, Cancer Biology, Stem Cell Sciences and Technology)

Average fee structure: INR 1,00,000-4,00,000

10) Indian Academy Group of Institutions, Bengaluru

Introduction:

Came into effect under the supervision of Dr. T. Somasekhar, the main aim of this institution is to offer high-quality education by accomplished trustees. It took a long to systematically arrange as well as execute the long-desired plans to construct this educational institution. Besides, this institution also believes in imparting formal and full-time education. It is one of the centrally trusted as well as recognized institutions that follow all the guidelines of Statutory bodies.

Admissions:

The students who desire to be a part of this University and study genetics need to clear the entrance exam called Jain Entrance Test (JET). The entrance exam is applicable for both undergraduate as well as Post-graduate students. Besides entrance exam, the minimum criteria for admission of undergraduate students are 35% of marks in 10+2 or equivalent. For enrolment into Master’s Degree in Genetics, a minimum of 50% marks in B.Sc in Genetics in mandatory.

Degrees offered: Undergraduate, Post-graduate

Top Courses: MBA (Human Resource Management, Marketing, Finance, Banking Finance and Management); M.Sc (Community Health Nursing, Medical Surgery Nursing, Applied Genetics, Microbiology, Psychiatric Nursing); B.Sc (Nursing, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Microbiology, Statistics, Zoology); B.A (Economics, English, Journalism, History)

Average fee structure: INR 2,00,000-6,00,000

 

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List of Universities offering Genetics
List of Universities