Animal Parasitology: Meaning, Types, Scope, Courses, Jobs and More (2021)

The study related to animal parasites, particularly parasite-host connections, is known as animal parasitology. Domestic animal parasites (found in livestock and companion animals) and those found in wild animals are also considered. Furthermore, animal parasitologists research the origins and development of parasitoses in animals acting as hosts. It also relates to the study of parasite taxonomy and systematics, including parasite morphology and their life cycle. Moreover, it studies the living requirements of these parasites in nature and in the host animals. They also diagnose and treat and prevent animal parasites using a range of research methodologies.

Additionally, animal parasitological research provides information that aids veterinary treatment and enhances animal breeding. Furthermore, animal parasitology’s primary purpose is to preserve and promote the health of animals. However, because several animal parasites transfer themselves onto humans, its also vital for looking after public health.

In addition, parasites in animals are identified using a variety of methods including testing faeces and blood or tissue sample of the host animal.

Table of Contents

Coprological

Coprological examination entails looking through an animal’s faeces to find and count the eggs of the parasite. Moreover, in order to separate the eggs and faeces, certain common procedures are used such as faecal flotation and sedimentation. Similarly, the McMaster method is used which employs a specific two-chamber slide that permits the eggs to be seen and counted more clearly. It’s generally used to keep track of parasites in animals like horses, as well as other grazing animals and livestock. Besides, the Baermann approach is also similar but it takes more specialist equipment and time to identify lungworm and threadworm.

Haematological

The presence of parasites in an animal’s blood is determined through haematological investigations. Blood parasites prefer to live in erythrocytes or white blood cells and are most often found during the early stages of infection. Therefore, blood smears are used by animal parasitologists to study a drop of blood on a slide by spreading it across the surface of a thin film. This is then examined under a microscope. In addition, to make it easier to recognise the cells, the blood is coloured with a dye.

Histopathological

Animal tissue samples are also examined in histopathological exams. A tiny slice of an organ suspected of parasite infection is put on a slide, then stained and inspected under a microscope. Moreover, skin scraping – which includes obtaining a small sample of the epidermal cells of the dogs and cats or other family pets – is often used to detect mites’ presence. Despite the fact that skin scrapping is not technically a histopathological technique.

Immunological

Immunological tests including indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA and Immunoblotting (Western blot) as well as the Complement fixation test are also used to identify parasites. Furthermore, this is done by detecting the presence of antigens on or inside the parasite. For more precise identification of different species of parasites in faecal samples, these diagnostic procedures are also utilized in conjunction with coprological tests.

Molecular biological

To identify a parasite, molecular biological procedures entail examining the parasite’s DNA. Moreover, the parasite DNA discovered in the host’s faeces or blood or tissue is detected and amplified using PCR and RFLP. However, these techniques are extremely sensitive, therefore they are useful for parasite diagnosis even if their presence is in very minute numbers. They can also be used to identify parasites not only in small insect vectors but also in large animal hosts.

What is Animal Parasitology?

Platter, The Italian Francesco Redi, known as the ‘Father of Parasitology’, was the first to identify and rightly describe numerous significant parasites. Furthermore, the study of parasites and their hosts along with their interactions is known as parasitology. Parasitology’s scope as a biological field is not only dependent on the organism or environment in issue, but also on their method of existence.

Parasitology is the branch of biology that studies parasites and parasitic diseases. It also involves the study of their distribution and biochemistry. Similarly, physiology and molecular biology, as well as ecology and evolution as well as the host’s reaction to these agents, are studied. Besides, a parasitic relationship occurs when one creature, the parasite, feeds on another creature, the host, causing injury and possibly death of the host. Tapeworms and fleas as well as barnacles are also examples of parasites.

The science of animal parasitology is concerned with animal parasites. Its concerned with the interactions of a host and the parasite population which lives on or inside that host. Moreover, animal parasitology encompasses all aspects of domestic animal parasites and their hosts, including parasite physiology and biochemistry. It also includes morphology and life cycles and the pathological as well as immunological and clinical reactions of the host to the parasite’s presence. Furthermore, it covers the treatment and control of infections and disorders caused by parasites. It also covers the public health implications of parasites that might infect people from domestic animals.

Animal health investigators and veterinary practitioners and others with a special interest in parasitology are interested in the areas of helminthology. Similarly, the fields of protozoology and entomology are of importance to them. The aspects of disease prevention and pathology and treatment and control of parasites in all domesticated animals also form part of Animal Parasitology.

History of Animal Parasitology

In the year 1681, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek discovered Giardia lamblia and could find its connection with ‘his own loose stools’. Therefore, he discovered this protozoan parasite in humans for the first time, and its the first one seen under a microscope. In the years that followed, Italian researchers Giovanni Cosimo Bonomo and Diacinto Cestoni also published their findings. Subsequently, in the year 1687, they made their findings public confirming that Sarcoptes scabiei, the parasite mite, causes Scabies. Consequently, Scabies became the first human disease with a documented microscopic causing agent.

Francesco Redi discussed ectoparasites and endoparasites in the book, Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degli Insetti (Experiences of the Generation of Insects). It also contained illustrations of ticks and deer nasal fly larvae and sheep liver fluke. Above a hundred parasites, such as the human roundworm, were described and illustrated in his previous (1684) work titled Observations on Living Animals discovered in Living Animals. Moreover, he observed that parasites grow from eggs, defying the premise of spontaneous generation.

In the nineteenth century, various researchers and physicians also made accurate observations, which led to the development of modern parasitology. Amoebiasis, or protozoal infections of the intestines and liver, was first recorded in the year 1828 by James Annersley. However, the pathogen, Entamoeba histolytica, was not found until the year 1873 by Friedrich Lösch. Besides, in the year 1835, James Paget found a worm in humans named Trichinella spiralis. In addition, the human liver fluke was first described in 1875 by James McConnell.

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Louis Alexis Normand, a physician, working at French Naval Hospital in Toulon, identified the only known helminth capable of permanently replicating within a host and causing the disease strongyloidiasis. Moreover, this discovery was made in the year 1876 while examining the maladies of French soldiers coming back from a place now in Vietnam. In the year 1877, Patrick Manson identified the elephantiasis life cycle, its caused by nematode worms spread by mosquitoes.

Manson also anticipated that Plasmodium, the malaria parasite, had a mosquito vector, and pushed Ronald Ross to look into it. Furthermore, in the year 1897– 1898, Ross affirmed that the forecast was right. Simultaneously, Giovanni Battista Grassi and colleagues described the stages of the malaria parasite’s life cycle in Anopheles mosquitoes. Besides, for his work, Ross was controversially given the Nobel Prize in the year 1902, whereas Grassi was not.

Types of Animal Parasitology

The study of animal parasites, particularly parasite-host connections, is generally known as animal parasitology. Domestic animal parasites (livestock and pet animals), as well as wildlife animal parasites, are also categorized within animal parasitology. They also diagnose and not only treat but also prevent animal parasitoses using a range of research methodologies. Parasites are creatures that take up residence in the bodies of other plants and animals. Moreover, the parasite lives in an environment provided by the hosts.

Non- infectious and infectious causes can lead to animal sickness or diseases. Moreover, non-infectious diseases are caused by genetic mutations and physiological abnormalities. They can also be caused by the structural malfunction or external causes including injury or radiation and poisoning. Infectious diseases, on the other hand, are also connected with invasive self- multiplying agents that occupy an animal’s. Furthermore, they find the animal’s body to be their biological niche, much like a koala bear adapts to life in a certain Eucalyptus tree type.

Infectious diseases are studied under two heads namely Microbiology and Parasitology. Microbiology studies non-cellular and prokaryotic organisms including bacteria and viruses. Whereas Parasitology studies eukaryotic life- forms. In addition, fungi are an outlier in this scheme, as they are typically taught in Microbiology, despite the fact that they are eukaryotes. Animal parasitology is also a hybrid of three sciences, each having its individual set of host-parasite interactions and clinical considerations and terminologies.

Topic:

The following three topics make up the majority of Animal/Veterinary Parasitology:

Animal/Veterinary entomology: This involves studying parasitic arthropods such as insects and ticks or mites.

Animal/Veterinary Protozoology: It refers to the study of single-celled eukaryotic organisms that make up the parasitic protozoa.

Veterinary helminthology: This is the study of parasitic worms, including trematodes (flukes) and cestodes (tapeworms) and nematodes (roundworms), along with smaller groups like thorny-headed worms.

Parasites are also classified into three groups based on whether they are found on or in the host’s body:

Ectoparasites

Ectoparasites live and feed on the host’s surface or implant themselves in the host’s superficial or subsurface tissues. These also include everything from flies that land briefly to feed on secretions from the eyes and nose or other orifices to mites that spend practically their entire lives in skin tunnels.

Endoparasites

Endoparasites dwell inside the host’s body. Moreover, parasites can be found in almost every biological tissue, with the exception of bone and keratin. Those that are free in the gastrointestinal tract’s lumen are technically outside of any host tissue.

The parasite’s relationship to the tissue it dwells in, is also a key distinction that determines both the pathogenesis of the infection and its treatment options:

Extracellular parasites

Extracellular parasites are parasites that reside on or within host tissues but do not enter the cells of the host. Moreover, almost all metazoans, as well as many protozoan parasites, are examples of extracellular parasites.

Intracellular parasites

Intracellular parasites, such as several protozoan parasites and at least one nematode type (Trichinella), live inside a host cell, altering its genetic expression to suit their needs.

The reproductive behaviour of parasites in the ultimate host can also be used to distinguish them. Furthermore, this distinction is helpful because it highlights fundamental biological differences that affect pathogenesis. They also highlight the epidemiology and treatment as well as control. Such classification includes:

Microparasites

Microparasites are parasitic organisms that multiply inside the host. As a result, each organism that enters the host’s body has the potential to cause a major infection if its not stopped by human defences or chemotherapy. The parasitic protozoa are also included in this group (along with microorganisms such as bacteria).

Macroparasites

Macroparasites: Usually, while they are on or inside their host, their numbers do not vary. Though they may lay eggs or generate larvae, these are distributed into the environment. Consequently, the mature parasites’ number, on or inside the ultimate host, never surpasses the number of infective parasites that infiltrated their body in the first place. Arthropods and helminths also fall into this category, while a few species defy the general norm by multiplying on or in the host (e. g.: lice and mites and a few nematodes, e.g. Strongyloides).

Microcarnivores

These are small carnivores that come to feed on the host’s body but leave before developing or generating progeny. Furthermore, this classification can contain a variety of parasitic arthropods, such as mosquitoes.

Scope of Animal Parasitology in India

Parasitology is a branch of biology that studies creatures that feed on other species in their environment. Parasitologists are professionals who specialize in this fascinating field of research and work on parasites. Besides, a person with an inquisitive mind and an interest in the study is best suited for parasitology. Moreover, there are practically no limits to the amount of research that can be done. In addition, the diversity of parasitology’s basic and practical research topics, which span from the molecular to the global scale, is unrivalled in any other subject of biology. Parasitology is also the branch of biology that studies organisms that feed on other organisms and the environments in which they live. There are also many ways for a parasitologist to help improve human conditions.

Furthermore, a parasitologist is a scientist who examines parasites and their interactions with their hosts. They also investigate how humans will be affected by such a relationship. Parasitologists also operate in a variety of disciplines, such as medicine and agriculture and academia. Moreover, they carry out research in a variety of areas in biology such as microbiology and biochemistry. As a result, their occupations have several layers. With the advancement of technology and knowledge, a parasitologist has several opportunities to be at the forefront of scientific endeavours and discover new opportunities.

A parasitologist’s job isn’t limited to discovering new parasites and broadcasting their discovery to the rest of the world. The occupation also has variations, which vary depending on the position held and the area in which one has specialized. There are various options for diversions in the opportunities available, including:

Medical Parasitology:

Parasites are well-known for causing a variety of illnesses and maladies. Besides, fleas and lice are annoyances and act as carriers of diseases like the bubonic plague and typhus. They also spread the diseases and kill a large number of people. Medical parasitology comprises epidemiology and chemotherapy (the use of chemicals in treating illnesses). Furthermore, immunology (the study of the immune system) and pathology (the study of diseases that are difficult to identify and hence necessitate the discovery of processes).

Public health and medical parasitology are regarded to be extremely closely related. Central and state and municipal governments also employ health care professionals. They can also work for international organizations like the World Health Organization. Moreover, in the medical field, parasitologists are constantly battling and working to better understand the diseases caused by parasites.

Animal Parasitology:

The study of animal parasites is known as animal parasitology. Furthermore, it’s about how a host interacts with the parasite population that resides on or inside that host. Animal parasitology also includes parasite physiology and biochemistry, as well as all aspects of domestic animal parasites and their hosts. It also comprises the parasite’s anatomy and life cycles, as well as the host’s pathological, immunological, and clinical reactions to the parasite’s presence. Also, it encompasses the treatment and control of parasite-related illnesses and diseases. And, it addresses the public health consequences of parasites that may infect humans through domestic animals.

Agricultural Parasitology:

Agricultural parasitologists research and comprehend parasites in plants and animals, as well as those that end up in human food sources. Parasites can also be damaging not only by taking up residence in human bodies, but also entering into their food components via plants and animals. Thereby transmitting diseases.

Domesticated animals (cattle and horses) and companion animals (dogs and cats), and animals utilized for sports activities and leisure activities are also cared for by parasitologists working in the veterinary sector. Because plants can carry parasites, they also function as biological control agents in fighting crop insects and thereby reducing crop loss.

Wildlife Parasitology:

Knowing the natural habitats of wild animals and identifying parasite dangers that can disturb their regular lifestyles is the focus of wildlife parasitology. They also identify parasites that damage these animals and devise measures to prevent future problems.

Government agencies and commercial sector, and university surveys are common places for parasitologists to find jobs. Moreover, Conservation biologists are people who work on parasite research and monitor the endangered species’ parasites. Fishery biologists are also a type of parasitologists who study common parasites in fisheries and aquatic populations.

Pharmaceutics Parasitology:

Pharmaceutical companies offer a variety of job options for parasitologists. They also provide employment in the field of producing chemotherapeutic chemicals and learning how to use them more effectively. The development of such medications can also be utilized to reduce parasite spread in animals and plants, and people.

Academic Career:

For an aspiring researcher, a career in academics in the field of parasitology can be a gold mine. Because parasites may be found in practically all living beings, parasitologists have a broad understanding of biological systems and are skilled biologists.

Furthermore, the job role of a professor at a university would present the prospective educator and researcher with numerous demanding prospects. Because parasites are parasites, they can find a host in any living thing, therefore there are numerous research prospects related to parasites. Therefore, the science of parasitology, its largely unknown to the general public, offers enormous future promise.

Eligibility Criteria for Animal Parasitology in India

Each living organism on the planet has a minimum of one parasite attached to its reliance on it for its survival. Parasites can therefore be found either inside or outside of the host’s body and can have a significant impact on it. Parasitology, therefore, is the branch of biology that examines parasites along with their relationship with the host. Its also a field that analyses the parasite’s ever-changing connection with its host.

This field of parasitology offers a wide range of opportunities for research and is thus sub-divided into:

  • Medical Parasitology
  • Wildlife Parasitology
  • Veterinary/Animal Parasitology
  • Parasitology in pharmaceuticals
  • Agricultural Parasitology
  • Ecological Parasitology
  • Immunoparasitology
  • Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Parasites

Parasitologists research parasites and their interactions with their hosts. They also study their life cycles and reproduction. Similarly, biology and infestation as well as genetics are also studied. The real job responsibilities of a parasitologist subsequently differ depending on the job role and specialization. Medical parasitologists examine the diseases caused by parasites. Whereas, Agricultural parasitologists study parasites’ effects on plants, especially those acting as food sources for humans. Furthermore, Ecological parasitologists study parasites’ systemic nature and evolution. And Wildlife Parasitologists work to protect animals in their natural environment.

The eligibility criteria prescribed for admission to animal parasitology disciplines are:

  • For Bachelor’s Degree in Animal Parasitology: One must have completed 10+2 in a science stream and Biology should be one of the primary subjects studied. They should also have received a minimum mark of 50-55 percent.
  • For Master’s Degree in Animal Parasitology: Bachelor’s degree in any relevant discipline like biology, with a minimum of 55 percent is required. The student should also have obtained these minimum marks in the qualifying examination from a recognized college or university.
  • For PhD or Doctorate Degree in Animal Parasitology: Post-graduation in a relevant discipline is required from a recognized university or college. The candidate should also have cleared the qualifying examination with a score of at least 55 percent.
  • For M.D. in Animal Parasitology: MBBS degree should be obtained from a recognized university or college. They also need to have a qualifying examination score of at least 55 percent.
  • Certain universities also admit students on the basis of merit, while others hold their own entrance tests or accept results of national entrance examinations.

Animal Parasitology Entrance Exams

The Animal Parasitology degree is provided in India at the Postgraduate and Doctorate levels. Moreover, in order to get admission in any of these programs, the students need to qualify an entrance examination. Furthermore, this entrance examination is conducted by the universities individually either at the state level or at the national level.

An undergraduate degree in veterinary/animal science is the minimum requirement for participation in the Postgraduate Degree program. Besides, a master’s degree in the relevant discipline is required for admission to the PhD program. The following is a list of veterinary/animal parasitology admission tests at the postgraduate and doctoral levels.

List of Entrance Exams in Animal Parasitology

M Sc level

  • Aligarh Muslim University M. Sc. Entrance exam
  • Banaras Hindu University M. Sc. entrance exam
  • Birsa agricultural university M. Sc. in Veterinary Parasitology Entrance exam
  • ICAR All India Entrance Examination for Admission to Bachelor’s and Master’s Degree Programs in Agriculture and Allied Sciences
  • Indian Veterinary Research Institute – Master of Veterinary Science (M. V. Sc.) Entrance Exam
  • JIPMER
  • Nagaland University M. Sc. entrance exam
  • Vishwa Bharati University M. Sc. Entrance exam

PhD level

  • Birsa Agricultural University PhD Entrance Exam
  • The Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology PhD Entrance Exam
  • Indian Veterinary Research Institute PhD Entrance Exam
  • Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University PhD Entrance Exam
  • National Institute Of Cholera and Enteric Diseases PhD Entrance Exam
  • Rajasthan Agricultural University PhD Entrance Exam
  • Rajendra Agricultural University PhD Entrance Exam
  • West Bengal University of Animal and Fisheries Sciences PhD Entrance Exam

List of Institutions That Participate In This Exam

  • Assam Agricultural University- College of Veterinary Science – Assam Assam University
  • Birsa Agricultural University
  • G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology- College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences – G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology
  • Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University
  • Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University- College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
  • Marathwada Agriculture University- College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
  • Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology
  • Pondicherry University
  • Rajasthan Agricultural University- College of Veterinary and Animal Science
  • Rajendra Agricultural University
  • Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
  • West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences

There will be four options for each Multiple Choice Question on the paper. Moreover, there will be a total of two hundred questions. The following are some of the topics covered in this paper:

  • Physics and Chemistry
  • Zoology
  • Botany and English

The evaluation of this paper does not involve the use of negative marking.

The forms of admission to these animal parasitology programs will be available at all participating universities. Forms are also available on the official websites of these centres. Furthermore, students will also benefit from the centres’ provision of the form by mail. The cost of the forms will vary depending on where they are purchased. Admission forms for the JIPMER PG programs in Tropical Parasitology cost Rs 250, while the identical course costs Rs 500 at the PhD level. Besides, the form for the M. Sc. course in Animal Parasitology at the Birsa Agricultural University costs Rs 1, 000/-.

Top Animal Parasitology Courses in India

Animal Parasitology courses are available in the form of Postgraduate and Doctorate Degree in India. The Postgraduate degrees available in this discipline are M. Sc. and M. V. Sc. Moreover, interested students can apply for Ph. D. Degrees as well. The admissions to these degrees are offered on the basis of merit and entrance examination scores. Furthermore, there are several institutions in India office these degree programs to interested students across the country. These institutions include the Indian Veterinary Research Institute and the College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences.

Top Animal Parasitology Courses for Masters in India

M Sc

Master of Science in Animal Parasitology (M. Sc. Animal Parasitology) is a postgraduate veterinary science program. Animal parasitology is a branch of research that investigates animal parasites, particularly parasite-host relationships and interactions. During the course, both domestic (livestock and pets) and wild (wildlife) animals are considered. The course lasts two years and is job-oriented, resulting in a plethora of prospects upon graduation.

Eligibility for the M.Sc. in Veterinary Parasitology

  • Interested candidates should have a minimum mark of 60% in a relevant discipline in B. Sc. or other equivalent qualification.
  • For admissions, several of the most prestigious universities and institutes in the country also hold an entrance examination.

Syllabus:

Animal Parasitology (MSc) syllabus is given by different Universities and Colleges. Moreover, the subjects in this degree program include Taxonomy and Physiology as well as Parasite Identification Principles. Similarly, it includes Interactions between the host and the parasite, and their life cycle. Development of parasitic infection through chemotherapies, controls and vaccines along with Veterinary Epidemiology is also taught. The students also study Applied Immunology and Principles of Scientific Communication along with Computer Science and Biostatistics. They are also taught Applied Molecular Biology and Diagnostic Pathology and Histopathology. Along with Clinical Pathology and Biochemical Techniques and Instrumentation

Course Details:

The course is designed for students who desire to gain practical knowledge in order to pursue a career in parasitic disease research. Furthermore, training in the control of diseases caused by parasites using veterinary medicine is also involved. The students are also able to improve their clinical abilities and step toward specialist status. Its a wonderful fit for students who wish to acquire real-world abilities such as communication and knowledge exchange. They are also taught critical evaluation and analysis.

This course is helpful for students who desire to work in important areas including food security and Vivo biology. They can also work in the research industry and government organizations. This course is also for applicants who want to improve their skills in veterinary and general research methodology. Besides, this Master’s degree program also provides training in dealing with infectious diseases and disease ecology. Conservation and veterinary public health are also taught, allowing graduates to play a significant role in these fields, including in policy development.

This program also provides graduates of biological or veterinary sciences with practical knowledge and skills to pursue career as professional parasitologists. It also improve their practical skills and help them become specialists. Additionally, it prepares them for postgraduate studies and development of a career in research. General practice involving working with pets and farm animals, and research at universities and government research facilities, are all viable options.

Employment opportunities are available with an M. Sc. in Animal Parasitology in Veterinary Universities and Colleges. They can also find employment in Animal Hospitals and Private Veterinary Clinics. The job roles available after M. Sc. Animal Parasitology are: Research Associate and Associate Professor. Similarly, Teacher and Lecturer and Livestock Officer. Besides, Animal Health Section Head and Pharma Export Executive.

List of Top M. Sc. Colleges in India

College Name – Birsa Agricultural University Ranchi

Admission Criteria for M. Sc.: Entrance based

Average Fees for M. Sc.: Rs 15, 500

Types of Jobs after M. Sc.: Parasitologist and Professor and Lecturer. Also, Research Associate and Associate Professor. Similarly, Teacher and Lecturer and Livestock Officer. Besides, Animal Health Section Head and Pharma Export Executive.

Average Placements after M. Sc.: Rs

M V. Sc.

The M. V. Sc. Animal Parasitology program is a two-year postgraduate program that teaches students about the interactions between a parasite and the body of its host. Moreover, the primary goal of this course is to learn about parasites that affect both domestic and wild animals. The program also entails a thorough investigation of parasites and their behaviour in animals. Furthermore, this course can be availed by the students who have finished their graduation in a relevant subject with a minimum aggregate score of 60%. Besides admissions are also offered on the basis of merit and by the administration of an entrance exam.

Additionally, the students upon completing the M. V. Sc Veterinary/Animal Parasitology degree can work in research labs and veterinary hospitals. They can also work in colleges and disease control centres and other places in the public as well as private sectors. After completing the training, they can expect to earn roughly Rs 20,000- Rs 30,000 monthly on average. Besides, the average fee of the course is between Rs 45,000 to Rs 3, 00, 000.

A few universities admit students to M. V. Sc. programs based on merit, while others admit competent candidates based on an entrance examination. The interested students must also submit an application form to the institutions or universities to which they wish to enrol. Moreover, they must do well in their undergraduate courses, as the grades earned there to serve as the foundation for this admission. Furthermore, some institutions publish their cut off list so the students can check if they are eligible for any of them. Additionally, if they qualify, they can go to the college and present all of the necessary documentation.

Eligibility:

The following are the eligibility requirements for the M. V. Sc. Animal Parasitology program. The eligibility requirements will differ from one institute to the next.

  • Interested students must have a Bachelor’s degree from a recognized institution or university in the relevant subject.
  • They should also have a minimum score of 60% in their undergraduate degree.

Entrance Tests:

The M. V. Sc. program is only offered by some colleges that are based in India. The entrance tests conducted for this purpose will either be online or offline, depending on the college. The following are some of the entry exams: –

  • ICAR AIEEA PG- This is an annual national level test held by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). Besides, it’s a computer-based test that will only be available online.
  • GBPUAT- This exam, its based on pen and paper, is held once a year. Moreover, Pantnagar University in Uttarakhand conducts this three-hour exam.

The M. v. Sc. entrance exam syllabus would differ from one college to the next. Students studying for any of the aforementioned admission exams should also pay attention to the following preparation tips:

  • Students must look over the published curriculum, study the topics, and review their concepts.
  • They should choose the Exam Preparation Material first in and stick to the Textbooks or Preparation Material they choose. This will also assist them in avoiding confusions particularly at the last moment.

Numerous factors need to be considered while getting into a top M. V. Sc. Animal Parasitology college. Some of the points listed below will be beneficial during the admissions process:

  • Admission to a top institution is granted either through an entrance exam or based on merit. Because most institutions accept students based on their merit, students must also aim to receive good grades in the undergraduate degree.
  • A student’s participation in extracurricular activities will also assist him or her in achieving a high place on the merit list. For getting admission in a good college, students must also achieve qualifying grades in the entrance examination.

Program Details:

The following are the details and information regarding the M. V. Sc Animal Parasitology program:-

The M. V. Sc. in Animal Parasitology is a two-year program designed for students interested in a long-term career studying animals and their relationships with various parasites. Moreover, its main goal is to educate pupils about animal diseases and how animals react to foreign items on their bodies.

The M. V. Sc. Animal Parasitology curriculum is designed to provide students with the required skills and academic knowledge. The program also aims to see if the parasite has any function on an animal’s body and if it will be valuable to any other organism.

Additionally, there are several reasons to pursue an M. V. Sc. in Veterinary Parasitology degree. The country seeks professionals with extensive animal experts who can contribute to the improvement of animal life. The students getting accepted into this course have the options listed below:

It opens up a slew of new possibilities in a variety of disciplines, particularly in the wildlife industry. Students can also apply for positions such as pharmacist and veterinary officer, and scientific officer after completing the course.

Furthermore, students who desire to expand their knowledge can pursue advanced degrees such as a PhD in related fields. Those who have finished this degree are also eligible for a variety of jobs depending upon their knowledge and skill and calibre.

List of Top M. V. Sc. Colleges in India

College Name –

  • College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Bikaner
  • Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology
  • Indian Veterinary Research Institute Bareilly
  • Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology
  • Junagadh Agricultural University
  • Veterinary College and Research Institute
  • College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences RAJUVAS Udaipur

Average Fees for M. V. Sc.: Rs 45,000 to Rs 3, 00, 000

Admission Criteria for M. V. Sc.: Entrance based as well as Merit-based

Types of Jobs after M. V. Sc.: Pharmacist and Animal Epidemiologist and Veterinary Officer. Also, Veterinary Doctor and Professor.

Average Placements after M. V. Sc.: Rs 20,000- Rs 30,000/ month.

Ph. D. in Animal Parasitology

PhD Animal Parasitology is a veterinary studies doctoral degree having a duration of three years. Moreover, this course is for individuals who are interested in researching and studying parasites on the basis of their samples and chemical composition. Aspirants for Ph. D. Animal Parasitology admissions should have earned an undergraduate degree in veterinary science. They should also have a postgraduate degree in the relevant area with a cumulative grade point average of 60 per cent or higher. Besides, the fees for a Ph. D. in Animal Parasitology is between Rs 35,000 to Rs 4, 31, 000.

Admission to the PhD program in Animal Parasitology is also done through an entrance examination. Moreover, the candidates who have been chosen will be invited to a group discussion or interview. The merits are calculated using qualifying marks and entrance exam scores and interviews. Some of India’s best Ph. D. institutes that provide Ph. D. Animal Parasitology include the Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) and Birsa Agricultural University. Also, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology and Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University.

Students with a Ph. D. in Animal Parasitology have a wide range of professional options. Furthermore, students can do research and teach in reputable institutions and universities. Ph. D. students can expect to earn anywhere between Rs 3, 00, 000 and Rs 12, 00, 000 per year. It improves as one gains experience. The scientific sector and hospitals and animal welfare NGOs are the major employers of these degree holders. Animal parasitologists get placed as parasitologists and virologists and researchers, among other jobs.

Additionally, students who meet the eligibility requirements may apply for entrance tests held by the institutions. The colleges and institutions that invite applications for the pH. D. program admit students on the basis of their academic performance.

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Written test scores and interview results are also considered for this purpose. A minimum qualifying percentage is imposed by the conducting universities or colleges.

Students for getting admission in a Ph. D. program in animal parasitology must take an entrance examination. Besides, the students who have been chosen advance to the next step of the selection process, which include not only a group discussion but also a direct interview. The interested students should also have a bachelor’s degree in veterinary science and a postgraduate degree in the relevant field. Students should also have earned a minimum of 60% marks in their Postgraduate degree (55 per cent in the case of SC/ST candidates).

The entrance exams for admission to the PhD programs include Ph. D. Entrance Examination of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) and the PhD Entrance Examination of the Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University (KVAFSU). Also, PhD Entrance Examination at West Bengal University of Animal and Fisheries Sciences (WBUAFS).

Ph. D. in animal parasitology is a doctoral degree that helps the students prepare to conduct extensive study in a variety of related subjects. The course also educates aspiring candidates to get a thorough understanding of parasite experimentation. Bacteria and viruses that cause animal diseases are also studied in these research investigations. The animal parasitology research program also enables students to treat diseases in animals caused by parasites. Furthermore, the program is meant to provide candidates with expertise in both academic and practical elements of the field of study.

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Students obtain skills in treating diseases in animals as well as gain knowledge of infectious diseases that affect animals and pets. They also study disease ecology and veterinary and public health conservation in general through this comprehensive study program. Students learn how to strengthen their communication and evaluation, and improve their analytical skills as well.

PhD in Veterinary Parasitology equips students with the necessary knowledge and resources to conduct extensive research. Doctorates open doors to lucrative careers in research and veterinary consulting organizations. Also, in veterinary hospitals and research labs. They can also work as professors in prestigious institutions and colleges.

Before applying to a good college, Ph. D. Animal Parasitology aspirants should consider the following key points. The entrance examination is required for admission in Ph. D. programs in animal parasitology. To get admission in a good institution easily one should aim to achieve a good test score. Before choosing a college for a Ph. D. in animal parasitology, one should ensure that the institution has the necessary infrastructure and facilities to provide the most up-to-date information. Additionally, the institution should have enough qualified teachers and instructional personnel to help in completing the Ph. D. program. A respectable college that offers a Ph. D. in animal parasitology should have a dedicated Placement Cell that can reassure students by promising good job chances when they complete the program.

Colleges/Universities offering PhD in Animal Parasitology

College Name –

  • Indian Veterinary Research Institute
  • Birsa Agricultural University
  • Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology
  • Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University
  • West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences
  • College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Rajasthan
  • Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University

Admission Criteria for PhD in Animal Parasitology: Merit based and entrance based

Average Fees for PhD in Animal Parasitology: Rs 35,000 to Rs 4, 31, 000.

Average Placements after PhD in Animal Parasitology: Rs 3, 00, 000 and Rs 12, 00, 000

What to do after PhD in Animal Parasitology?

Students with a Ph. D. in Animal Parasitology are qualified to undertake research in a field of study its related to human and animal health. Moreover, the candidates have knowledge about the many parasites that impact animal health and are capable of performing the necessary treatments to cure the illness. The different job roles available after Ph. D. are:

Parasitologist-

  • His job entails performing studies on parasites and viruses and bacteria found in the bodies of insects and plants. They are also responsible for developing treatments and solutions. Moreover, they are paid Rs 5 to 6 lakhs per annum.

Lecturers/Professors:

  • His profession includes equipping pupils with the necessary skills and knowledge of the subject. This is in order for them to become efficient in their chosen career. Furthermore, their salary ranges between Rs 6 to 12 lakhs.

Researcher:

  • His responsibilities include data collection and analysis of information and organization as well as report writing. Additionally, they are offered Rs 5 to 7 lakhs as salary.

Veterinarian:

  • His responsibilities include studying animal health and diagnosing illnesses. They are also responsible for treating patients and conducting research. Besides, they are provided with a salary package of Rs 6 to 7 lakhs.

Virologist:

  • His research focuses on the various types of viruses and agents, as well as their taxonomy and disease-causing genetics. Also, they are provided Rs 3 to 7 lakhs per annum.
  • Parasitologist for wildlife: His research covers the study of wildlife and the diseases that they cause. Moreover, they get a salary of Rs 5 to 6 lakhs per year.
  • Medical parasitologist: This is the study of parasites in humans. His research focuses on the relationship between medicine and human health. They also perform the analysis and evaluation of cures. Furthermore, the salary offered is Rs 5 to 6 lakhs.

Animal Parasitology Job Roles and Levels in India

Candidates who complete their studies in Animal Parasitology courses will be able to propose solutions in the areas of vaccines and antihelmintic resistance. Doctorate holders in Animal Parasitology can also work in places like research veterinary clinics and parasitology and animal welfare non-profit organizations. Furthermore, they work as Parasitologists and Researchers and Medical Parasitologists. Additionally, Pharmacologists and other titles are also given to them.

Parasitologist: Beginner, Mid-Experienced and Highly Experienced

The job role of a parasitologist comprises of researching parasites and viruses, and bacteria discovered in insects and plants’ bodies. They’re also in charge of coming up with new treatments and remedies. They are also paid between Rs 5 and Rs 6 lakhs every year.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs 5 LPA to 6 LPA

Mid-Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Highly Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Lecturers or Professors: Beginner, Mid-Experienced and Highly Experienced

The job of a professor is to provide students with the required skills and knowledge in the subject. This is to help them become more efficient in their chosen profession. Furthermore, their remuneration ranges from Rs 6 to Rs 12 lakhs.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs 6 LPA to 12 LPA

Mid-Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Highly Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Researcher: Beginner, Mid-Experienced and Highly Experienced

Data gathering and analysis, and organization, as well as report authoring, are among the researcher’s tasks. They would also receive a remuneration of Rs 5 to 7 lakhs.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs 5 LPA to 7 LPA

Mid-Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Highly Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Veterinarian: Beginner, Mid-Experienced and Highly Experienced

The veterinarian is in charge of researching animal health and diagnosing ailments. They are also in charge of treating patients and carrying out research. In addition, they are paid a salary of Rs 6 to 7 lakhs.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs 6 LPA to 7 LPA

Mid-Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Average Salary for Highly Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Virologist: Beginner, Mid-Experienced and Highly Experienced

Virologists’ research focuses on viruses and agents of various types, as well as their taxonomy and disease-causing genetics. They are also given Rs 3 to 7 lakhs every year.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs 3 LPA to 7 LPA

Mid-Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Highly Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Wildlife Parasitologist: Beginner, Mid-Experienced and Highly Experienced

The research of wildlife parasitologists focuses on wildlife and the diseases that they bring with them. Furthermore, they are paid between Rs 5 and Rs 6 lakhs every year.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs 5 LPA to 6 LPA

Mid-Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Highly Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Medical Parasitologist: Beginner, Mid-Experienced and Highly Experienced

The study of parasites in humans is known as parasitology. Medical Parasitologist’s study is focused on the intersection of medicine and human health. They also do cure analysis and evaluation. Furthermore, they are offered Rs 5- 6 lakh salary.

Average Salary for Beginners: Rs 5 LPA to 6 LPA

Mid-Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Experienced: Rs LPA to LPA

Frequently Asked Questions About Animal Parasitology in India

Q1 What do you understand by the term Animal Parasitology?

  • Animal parasitology is the study of animal parasites, particularly parasite-host relationships. Domestic animal parasites (discovered in livestock and companion animals) as well as wild animal parasites are taken into account. Animal parasitologists also study the origins and progression of parasitoses in animals that serve as hosts. It also has something to do with parasite taxonomy and systematics, as well as parasite morphology and life cycles. It also investigates the parasites’ life requirements in nature and in their host animals. They also use a variety of research approaches to identify, treat, and prevent animal parasites. It includes:

Coprological examination:

  • It comprises searching an animal’s feces for parasite eggs and counting them. Furthermore, typical processes such as fecal flotation and sedimentation are employed to separate the eggs and feces. The McMaster method, which utilizes a particular two-chamber slide that allows the eggs to be seen and counted more clearly, is also utilized. It’s most commonly used to track parasites in horses, as well as other grazing animals and livestock. Furthermore, the Baermann method is similar, but identifying lungworm and threadworm requires more specialized equipment and time.

Haematological examination:

  • These are used to assess the presence of parasites in an animal’s blood. During the early phases of infection, blood parasites prefer to reside in erythrocytes or white blood cells. As a result, animal parasitologists utilize blood smears to investigate a drop of blood on a slide by spreading it across the surface of a thin film. After that, it’s studied under a microscope. Additionally, the blood dyed to make it simpler to distinguish the cells.

Histopathological examination:

  • They also performed on animal tissue samples. A little slice of an organ suspected of infected with parasites placed on a slide, stained, and examined under a microscope. Furthermore, skin scraping – which involves taking a small sample of epidermal cells from dogs, cats, and other family pets – frequently used to determine the presence of mites. Even if skin scraping isn’t really a histopathological procedure.

Immunological examination:

  • Parasites are also identified using immunological procedures such as indirect immunofluorescence, ELISA, Immunoblotting (Western blot), and the Complement fixation test. This is also accomplished by identifying the presence of antigens on or within the parasite. These diagnostic approaches are also used in conjunction with coprological assays for a more exact identification of distinct parasite species in feces samples.
  • Molecular biological examination: These procedures involve studying the parasite’s DNA in order to identify it. PCR and RFLP are also used to detect and amplify parasite DNA found in the host’s feces, blood, or tissue. However, because these techniques are exceedingly sensitive, they can be used to diagnose parasites even if they are present in very small amounts. They can also be utilized to identify parasites in large animal hosts as well as small insect vectors.

Q2 What is the eligibility criteria for Animal Parasitology courses in India?

  • Every living entity on the world is parasitized by at least one parasite that depends on it for survival. Parasites can thus be found both inside and outside the host’s body, and they can have a considerable impact on it. As a result, parasitology is the discipline of biology that studies parasites and their interactions with their hosts. It’s also a branch of science that studies the parasite’s ever-changing relationship with its host. This sub-discipline of parasitology offers a diverse range of research options, and is thus classified into:
  • Medical Parasitology
  • Wildlife Parasitology
  • Veterinary/Animal Parasitology
  • Parasitology in pharmaceuticals
  • Agricultural Parasitology
  • Ecological Parasitology
  • Immunoparasitology
  • Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Parasites
  • The eligibility criteria for various Animal Parasitology courses are:
  • For an Undergraduate Degree in Animal Parasitology, you must have finished 10+2 in a scientific stream, with Biology as one of the core topics. They should have gotten at least a 50-55 per cent on the exam.
  • An undergraduate degree in any related area, such as biology, with a minimum of 55 per cent is necessary for a Postgraduate Degree in Animal Parasitology. The student must also have received these minimal grades in a recognized college or university’s qualifying test.
  • Post-graduation in a related discipline from a recognized institution or college is necessary for a PhD or Doctorate Degree in Animal Parasitology. In addition, the candidate must have passed the qualifying exam.

Q3 Describe the opportunities available after Ph. D. in Animal Parasitology?

  • Students who earn a Ph. D. in Animal Parasitology are prepared to conduct research in a field related to human and animal health. Furthermore, the candidates are knowledgeable about the various parasites that affect animal health and are capable of administering the essential remedies. The following are the various job roles possible after obtaining a Ph. D.:

Parasitologist-

  • His employment comprises researching parasites, viruses, and bacteria found in insects and plants’ bodies. They’re also in charge of coming up with new treatments and remedies. They are also paid between Rs 5 and Rs 6 lakhs every year.

Lecturers/Professors:

  • His job includes providing students with the essential skills and topic knowledge. This is to help them become more efficient in their chosen profession. Furthermore, their remuneration ranges from Rs 6 to Rs 12 lakhs.

Researcher:

  • His tasks as a researcher include data collecting, information analysis, and organisation, as well as report authoring. They would also receive a remuneration of Rs 5 to 7 lakhs.

Veterinarian:

  • His responsibilities as a veterinarian include studying animal health and diagnosing ailments. They are also in charge of treating patients and carrying out research. In addition, they are paid a salary of Rs 6 to 7 lakhs.

Virologist:

  • His research focuses on viruses and agents of various types, as well as their taxonomy and disease-causing genetics. They are also given Rs 3 to 7 lakhs every year.
  • Wildlife parasitologist: His research focuses on the study of wildlife and the diseases that they spread. Furthermore, they are paid between Rs 5 and Rs 6 lakhs every year.

Medical Parasitologist:

  • The study of parasites in people is done by a medical parasitologist. His study is focused on the intersection of medicine and human health. They also do cure analysis and evaluation. Furthermore, the salary ranges between Rs 5 and Rs 6 lakhs.

Q4 Explain the scope of Animal Parasitology in India?

  • The study of organisms that feed on other species in their habitat is known as parasitology. Parasitologists are specialists in this intriguing subject of parasite study and treatment. Furthermore, parasitology is best suited to someone with an inquisitive mind and a desire to learn. The amount of study that can be done is essentially limitless. No other area of biology offers the breadth of basic and applied study subjects in parasitology, which range from the molecular to the global scale. Parasitology is a discipline of biology that investigates species that feed on other organisms as well as the settings in which they live.
  • A parasitologist, on the other hand, is a scientist who studies parasites and their interactions with their hosts. They also look into how such a partnership will influence humans. Parasitologists work in a wide range of fields, including medicine, agriculture, and academics. Furthermore, they conduct research in a range of biological fields, including microbiology and biochemistry. As a result, their jobs have multiple layers. A parasitologist has various options to be at the forefront of scientific endeavors and explore new prospects as technology and knowledge develop.

Q5 Explain the M. V. Sc. In the Animal Parasitology course?

  • The M. V. Sc. Animal Parasitology program is a two-year postgraduate program that teaches students about parasites and their interactions with their hosts’ bodies. Furthermore, one of the main objectives of this course is to learn about parasites that impact both domestic and wild animals. A thorough examination of parasites and their behaviour in animals is also part of the program. Furthermore, students who have completed their graduation in a relevant topic with a minimum aggregate score of 60% can enrol in this course. Admissions also granted on the basis of merit and the results of an entrance examination.
  • Students can also work in research labs and veterinary hospitals after completing the M. V. Sc. Veterinary/Animal Parasitology degree. They can work in colleges, disease control centres, and other public and private sector locations. They might expect to earn anywhere between Rs 20,000 and Rs 30,000 per month after completing the course. Furthermore, the course’s typical fee ranges from Rs 45,000 to Rs 3,000,000.

A few universities admit students to M. V. Sc programs on the basis of merit, while others admit qualified candidates based on an entrance exam. Students must also fill out an application form and submit it to the institutions or universities where they desire to enrol. Furthermore, they must perform well in their undergraduate courses, as the grades gained there are used to determine admission. Furthermore, some universities make their cut-off lists public so that students can see if they qualify for any of them. They can also go to the college and provide all of the relevant documents if they qualify.

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List of Universities offering Animal Parasitology
List of Universities